Academic Expressions For Essays

Developing the argument

  • The first aspect to point out is that...
  • Let us start by considering the facts.
  • The novel portrays, deals with, revolves around…
  • Central to the novel is…
  • The character of xxx embodies/ epitomizes…

The other side of the argument

  • It would also be interesting to see...
  • One should, nevertheless, consider the problem from another angle.
  • Equally relevant to the issue are the questions of...

Conclusion

  • The arguments we have presented... suggest that.../ prove that.../ would indicate that...
  • From these arguments one must.../ could.../ might... conclude that...
  • All of this points to the conclusion that...
  • To conclude, …

Ordering elements

  • Firstly,.../ Secondly,.../ Finally,... (note the comma after all these introductory words.)
  • As a final point, …
  • On the one hand, …. on the other hand, …
  • If on the one hand it can be said that... the same is not true for...
  • The first argument suggests that... whilst the second suggests that...
  • There are at least xxx points to highlight.

Adding elements

  • Furthermore, one should not forget that...
  • In addition to...
  • Moreover...
  • It is important to add that…

Accepting other points of view

  • Nevertheless, one should accept that...
  • However, we also agree that...

Personal opinion

  • We/I personally believe that...
  • Our/My own point of view is that...
  • It is my contention that…
  • I am convinced that …
  • My own opinion is …

Others' opinions

  • According to some critics...
    Critics:
  • believe that
  • say that
  • suggest that
  • are convinced that
  • point out that
  • emphasise that
  • contend that
  • go as far as to say that
  • argue for this

Introducing examples

  • For example, …
  • For instance, …
  • To illustrate this point...

Introducing facts

  • It is... true that.../ clear that.../ noticeable that...
  • One should note here that...

Saying what you think is true

  • This leads us to believe that...
  • It is very possible that...
  • In view of these facts, it is quite likely that...

Certainty

  • Doubtless,...
  • One cannot deny that...
  • It is (very) clear from these observations that...

Doubt

  • All the same, it is possible that...
  • It is difficult to believe that...

Accepting other points to certain degree

  • One can agree up to a certain point with...
  • Certainly,... However,...
  • It cannot be denied that...

Emphasising particular points

  • The last example highlights that fact that...
  • Not only... but also...
  • We would even go so far as to say that...

Moderating, agreeing, disagreeing

  • By and large...
  • Perhaps we should also point out the fact that...
  • It would be unfair not to mention that fact that...
  • One must admit that...
  • We cannot ignore the fact that...
  • One cannot possibly accept the fact that...

Consequences

  • From these facts, one may conclude that...
  • That is why, in our opinion, ...
  • Which seems to confirm the idea that...
  • Thus,.../ Therefore,...

Comparison

  • Some critics suggest..., whereas others...
  • Compared to...
  • On the one hand there is the firm belief that... On the other hand, many people are convinced that...

Back in the late 90s, in the process of reading for my MA dissertation, I put together a collection of hundreds of sentence frames that I felt could help me with my academic writing later on. And they did. Immensely. After the course was over, I stacked my sentences away, but kept wondering if I could ever put them to good use and perhaps help other MA / PhD students.

So here are 70 sentences extracted and adapted for from the original compilation, which ran for almost 10 pages. This list is organized around keywords.

Before you start:
1. Pay close attention to the words in bold, which are often used in conjunction with the main word.
2. [   ] means “insert a suitable word here”, while (   ) means “this word is optional.”
3. Keep in mind that, within each group, some examples are slightly more formal / less frequent than others.

Argue
a. Along similar lines, [X] argues that ___.
b. There seems to be no compelling reason to argue that ___.
c. As a rebuttal to this point, it could be argued that ___.
d. There are [three] main arguments that can be advanced to support ___.
e. The underlying argument in favor of / against [X] is that ___.
f. [X]’s argument in favor of / against [Y] runs as follows: ___.

Claim
a. In this [paper], I put forward the claim that ___.
b. [X] develops the claim that ___.
c. There is ample / growing support for the claim that ___.
d. [X]’s findings lend support to the claim that ___.
e. Taking a middle-ground position, [X] claims that ___.

Data
a. The data gathered in the [pilot study] suggest that ___.
b. The data appears to suggest that ___.
c. The data yielded by this [study] provide strong / convincing evidence that ___.
d. A closer look at thedata indicates that ___.
e. The data generated by [X] are reported in [table 1].
f. The aim of this [section] is to generalize beyond the data and ___.

Debate
a. [X] has encourageddebate on ___.
b. There has been an inconclusive debate about whether ___.
c. The question of whether ___ has caused much debate in [our profession] [over the years].
d. (Much of) the current debate revolves around ___.

Discussion
a. In this section / chapter, the discussion will point to ___.
b. The foregoing discussion implies that ___.
c. For the sake of discussion, I would like to argue that ___.
d. In this study, the question under discussion is ___.
e. In this paper, the discussion centers on ___.
f. [X] lies at the heart of the discussion on ___.

Evidence
a. The availableevidence seems to suggest that ___ / point to ___.
b. On the basis of the evidence currently available, it seems fair to suggest that ___.
c. There is overwhelming evidence for the notion that ___.
d. Further evidence supporting / against [X] may lie in the findings of [Y], who ___.
e. These results provide confirmatory evidence that ___.

Ground
a. I will now summarize the ground covered in this [chapter] by ___.
b. On logical grounds, there is no compelling reason to argue that ___.
c. [X] takes a middle-ground position on [Y] and argues that ___.
d. On these grounds, we can argue that ___.
e. [X]’s views are grounded on the assumption that ___.

Issue
a. This study is an attempt to address the issue of ___.
b. In the present study, the issue under scrutiny is ___.
c. The issue of whether ___ is clouded by the fact that ___.
d. To portray the issue in [X]’s terms, ___.
e. Given the centrality of this issue to [my claim], I will now ___.
f. This [chapter] is concerned with the issue of [how/whether/what] ___.

Literature

a. [X] is prominent in the literature on [Y].
b. There is a rapidly growing literature on [X], which indicates that ___.
c. The literature shows no consensus on [X], which means that ___.
d. The (current) literature on [X] abounds with examples of ___.

Premise
a. The main theoretical premise behind [X] is that ___.
b. [X] and [Y] share an important premise: ___.
c. [X] is premised on the assumption that ___.
d. The basic premises of [X]’s theory / argument are ___.
e. The arguments against [X]’s premise rest on [four] assumptions: ___.

Research
a.This study draws on research conducted by ___.
b. Although there has been relatively little research on / into [X], ___.
c. In the last [X] years, [educational] research has provided ample support for the assertion that ___.
d. Current research appears / seems to validate the view that ___.
e. Research on / into ___ does not support the view that ___.
f. Further researchin this area may include ___ and ___.
g. Evidence for [X] is borne out by research that shows ___.
h. There is insufficient research on / into ___ to draw any firm conclusions about / on ___.

View
a. The consensus view seems to be that ___.
b. [X] propounds the view that ___.
c. Current research (does not) appear(s) to validate such a view.
d. There have been dissenters to the view that ___.
e. The answer to [X] / The difference between [X] and [Y] is not as clear-cut as popular views might suggest.
f. The view that _____ is in line with [common sense].
g. I am not alone in my view that ___.
h. [X] puts forward the view that ___.
i. [X]’s views rest on the assumption that ___.

If you found this list useful, check out The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need, which contains 600 sentences, as well as grammar and vocabulary tips. E-book and paperback available on Amazon.

 

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