Elena-Maria Antonia Chandler Dissertation Abstract

Doctoral Dissertations in Progress

  • Behan, Antonia. “The Brain of the Machine”: Ethel Mairet’s Textile Laboratory.
  • Bogansky, Amy. The Merchant’s Middlemen: Factors, Supercargoes, and the Praxis of Exchange in the Early Modern Atlantic World.
  • Brennan, Christine. The Brummer Gallery and Its Impact on the Market for Medieval Art and Collectors in Twentieth-Century Paris and New York.
  • Chan, Yenna. Narrating Montreal: Critiques of Urban Renewal in the 1970’s through Exhibition and Documentary Film.
  • D’Amato, Martina. La collectionneuse: The Marquise Arconati-Visconti and the Politics of Patronage in the Third Republic
  • DeGregorio, William. Objectifying Dress: Collecting Historic Costume in the United States, 1920-1970.
  • Denney, Joyce. The Story of Troy Finds a Home in Macau: A Set of Multicultural Embroidered Hangings of the Seventeenth Century.
  • Folkman, Marjorie. Dance’s Imprint: Choreography of the Visual Avant-Gardes.
  • Griffiths, Christine. From Garden to Toilette: Cultivating Perfume in Early Modern England.
  • Israel, Mei-Ling. Circles, Bees, and Threads: Traditional Craft Communities and the Digital.
  • Jensen, Hadley. Shaped by the Camera: Navajo Weavers and the Photography of Making in the American Southwest, 1880-1945.
  • Keagle, Matthew. “An Uniform Is Granted by All to be Absolutely Necessary”: A Cultural History of Military Dress in the Revolutionary Atlantic.
  • Larsen, Christian. Aquarela do Brasil: Transnational Flows of Brazilian Designand Material Culture.
  • Lu, Pengliang. Chinese Bronzes of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368).
  • McCormick, Heather Jane. Woodcarvers in the City of New York: A Study in Craft Change, 1820-1880.
  • McMahon, Elizabeth. “Robes of Court and Palace”: Dress and Queenship at the Court of Henry VIII, 1509-1547.
  • Nelson, Meredith. Golden Catenae—Form and Function: Body Chains and Elite Erotic Dress in the Roman World.
  • Perry, Rebecca. Problematic Bodies: Dressing Pre-Adolescent Girls in the United States, 1930-1965.
  • Rado, Mei. Xiyang Textiles in the Eighteenth-Century Qing Imperial Court: Fabrication, Display, and Representation of the West.
  • Rivas Perez, Jorge. Venezuelan Mid-Century Modern Design: Miguel Arroyo and His Circle, c.1945-1965.
  • Tuite, Rebecca. Nightwear in Hollywood Film and Television and the US Nightwear Industry, 1945-1977.
  • Sanchez Gomez, Antonio. An Exotic Object and Its Places: The Thor Washing Machine in Barranquilla and Bogota (1906-1920).
  • Sandler Perten, Rebecca. Implications of Mass Production for the Consumption of Jewish Ritual Objects by American Jewry, 1880-1980.
  • St. George, Elizabeth. A “Beautiful Household” for Czechoslovakia: Krásná jizba and Notions of Modern Living, 1927-1938.

Doctoral Dissertations Completed

  • Abrego, Sonya. Westernwear and the Postwar American Lifestyle. 2015.
  • Atkins, Jacqueline. Wearing Propaganda: Civilian Textiles on the Japanese Home Front 1931-1945 with Reference to Britain and The United States. 2006.
  • Bach, Debra Schmidt. Makers, Masters, and Manufacturers: Early Industrialization of the Silver Trade in Antebellum New York. 2014.
  • Bass-Krueger, Maude. The Culture of Dress History in France: The Past in Fashion, 1814-1900. 2015.
  • Bilak, Donna A. The Chymical Cleric: John Allin, Puritan Alchemist in England and America (1623-1683). 2013.
  • Dew, Eleanor Sarah. Lenygon & Morant (c.1904-1943): “Period Style” Interior Design and the Transatlantic Market for English Antiques. 2014.
  • Finamore, Michelle Tolini. Fashioning Early Cinema: Dress and Representation in American Film, 1905-1930. 2010.
  • Fisher, Ellen (posthumous). The Life and Work of Mary McFadden: With Special Emphasis on the Ancient and Ethnic Sources of Her Designs. [2013].
  • Hannah, Caroline. Henry Varnum Poor: Crow House, Craft, and Design. 2017.
  • Lake, Stephanie. Bonnie Cashin: Fashion and Costume Design ca. 1923-1985. 2009.
  • Lichtman, Sarah A. “Teenagers Have Taken over the House”: Print Marketing, Teenage Girls, and the Representation, Decoration, and Design of the Postwar Home, c. 1945-1965. 2013.
  • Shinn, Masako. Case Studies in Critical Regionalism: Takashi Sugimoto, Kuma Kengo, and Hiroshi Sambuichi. 2017.
  • Microulis, Laura. In Pursuit of Art Manufacture: The Business and Design History of Gillow and Company, 1862-1897,British Cabinet Maker and House Furnisher. 2015.
  • Sande-Friedman, Amy. Kenneth Snelson and the Science of Sculpture in 1960s America. 2012.
  • Scholz, Frederun. Studies on Costume Histories from the Age of German Kulturgeschichte. 2015.
  • Shales, Ezra. John Cotton Dana and the Business of Enlightening Newark: Applied Art at the Newark Public Library and Museum, 1902-29. 2006.
  • Smith, Daniella Ohad. Hotel Design in Zionist Palestine: Modernism, Tourism, and Nationalism, 1917-1948. 2006.
  • Tavares, Jonathan. Samuel Luke Pratt and the Arms and Armor Trade in Victorian Britain. 2013.
  • Yamamori, Yumiko. A. A. Vantine and Company: Japanese Handcrafts for the American Consumer, 1895-1920. 2010.

Master’s Theses + Qualifying Papers Completed

(asterisks * indicate award winners)
  • Abdur-Rahman (Mohideen), Ayesha. Beadwork of the South African Nguni (Xhosa and Zulu Peoples): General Principles and Guidelines for Attribution. 1999.
  • Adang, Lisa. At the Nexus of a Nebula: Where Phenomenology and Material History Meet in Virtual Reality. 2015.
  • Aki, Ajiri. La Vie a la Mode: Jean Patou’s Construction and Promotion of a Harmonious “Fashionable Lifestyle” 1919-1936. 2009.
  • Allaire-Graham, Erin Sunshine. A Collection of Choice Receipts: Networks of Recipe Sharing in Early Modern England. 2012.
  • Allen, Sara. A Study of the Emergence of Fashion in Women’s Eyeglasses in Mid-Twentieth Century America. 2004.
  • Ahn, Cabelle. Skinned Sculptures: Paper, Plaster, and Pose in Jean-Galbert Salvage’s Anatomie du Gladiateur combattant (1812). 2015.
  • Ansari, Sara. Gardens, Memory and the Iranian-American Immigrant’s Journey: … . 2010.
  • Archer, Sarah. Collecting the Lost Cause: Politics, Commemoration, and the Founding of the Museum of the Confederacy. 2006.
  • Arnold, Lauren. Gambling with Virtue: The Moral Currency of Playing Cards in Early Modern Italy. 2011.
  • Aves, Tara. The Tiffany Interior of Saint Paul’s Episcopalian Church in Troy, New York. 1999.
  • Baker, Luke. “A Story Around an Object”: Functions of Production Design in Jane Campion’s The Piano. 2011.
  • Baldenebro, Alizzandra. Flowers, Figures, Fragments: Revisiting André Charles Boulle’s Marquetry Cabinets-on-Stands. 2014.
  • Banas, Emily. Art or Culture? Interpretation and Display of Islamic Objects in the Museum. 2015.
  • Barr, Alexis. “Utility, with Reasonable Luxury”: Interborough Rapid Transit Station Interiors, 1900-1908. 2008.
  • Bateson, Adrienne. Sofas of the American Empire: A Search for American Distinction. 2011.
  • Battaglino, Wendy. The Lighting Designs of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. 1998.
  • Becker, Katharine. In Search of Eugène Fontenay. 2006.
  • Bedrosian, Carolyn. Eighteenth-Century France in the Gilded Age: Eleanore Elkins Widener Rice. 2006.
  • Beebe, James. Tubular-Steel and Metal-Framed Furniture of the Lloyd Manufacturing Company of Menominee, Michigan, 1929-1947. 2000.
  • Behan, Antonia. Looking At, Looking Through: A Conserved Panel Painting at the Met. 2014.
  • Bell, Tennan. Charming the Senses: Alexandre-François Desportes, Still Life, and Porcelain in Early Eighteenth-Century France. 2013.
  • Berszinn, Elizabeth. Collecting European Ceramics in Twentieth-Century America: R. Thornton Wilson at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011.
  • Bielicki, Dana. Crime and Violins: Sherlock Holmes and Objects. 2002.
  • Bingham, Lisa. The Val-Kill Industries: An Analysis of Their Founding, Context, and Dissolution. 2000.
  • Blok, Anna. Collecting the American Illustrated Book: The Early Years of the Limited Editions Club. 2003.
  • Boyer, Markley. Germanic Animal Ornament of the Staffordshire Hoard. 2011.
  • Brabender, Amy. A Self-Made World: Place, Memory, and Magic in the House and Garden of Mary Nohl. 2006.
  • Brandow, Adam. Modern Façades, Anti-Modern Interiors: Gender, Partnership, and the Architecture of Adolf Loos. 2010.
  • Brandt, Corinne. The Meschianza and the Chew Family: How a Family Remembers and Commemorates Personal and National History. 2014.
  • Brandt, Erika. Contextualizing Objects: The Hierarchical Categorization of Art Explored Through the Art of Dale Chihuly. 2004.
  • * Brauer, Lisa. A Survey of Ga’u in the Traditional Culture of Tibet Prior to 1959, With a Catalog and an Index of Objects in the Collections of Five U.S. Institutions. 2001.
  • Brennan, Christine. Prince Petr Soltykoff: An Important Nineteenth-Century Collector of Medieval Art. 2003.
  • Brierley, Sarah. Longfellow’s Wayside Inn: Henry Ford’s Vision of the American Past. 2006.
  • Brow, Kelsey. Writing Vegetarianism in Seventeenth-Century London: Thomas Tryon’s Wisdom’s Dictates and Ethical Consumption. 2014.
  • Brown, Sheena. Sartorial Splendor: Clothing at the Court of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy (1419-1465). 2003.
  • Buresh, James. Mid-Century Arcadia: Modern Classicism and Timeless Modernity in the Designs of Terence Harold Robsjohn-Gibbings. 2007.
  • Burrows, Keelin. Negotiating Craft Through the Culinary: Two Exhibitions Held at the Museum of Contemporary Crafts, 1965-1973. 2009.
  • Cain, Meaghan. Appalachia in Scraps: Interpreting Five Scrapbooks from the Pi Beta Phi Settlement School, 1919-1941. 2011.
  • Callanhan, Anne. Smart Books Don’t Shout: Norton Critical Editions, 1961-2009. 2009.
  • Campbell, Margaret Steward. Patented Linked Box Bracelets: Oscar Heyman & Bros., Inc.’s Contributions to the Manufacture of Gem-set Platinum Jewelry. 2003.
  • Cannatella, Anna-Maria. The Art of Display: Easels and Portfolio Stands in the Nineteenth-Century Domestic Interior. 2002.
  • Carr, Christian. Clear Comfort: The Alice Austen House and Museum. 1999.
  • Carroll, Richard. Great Expectations: The Manifesto of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings and Its Viability for Early 20th-Century Society Architects. 2013.
  • Casser, Alexandra. The Art of the Deal: Education and Marketing in American Museums. 2014.
  • Chan, Kei Yee. The Geometry in Art: Wenzel Jamnitzer’s Perspectiva Corporum Regularium. 2005.
  • Charlap, Danielle. Plan-a-Room: Paul MacAlister’s Kits for Three-Dimensional Visual Education. 2014.
  • Choi, Jennie. Elizabeth Hawes: Maverick of American Clothing Design. 1998.
  • * Chuang, Grace. The Role of the Savant and the Académie royale des sciences in Porcelain Research and Development in France, 1715 to 1772. 2010.
  • Christoffersen, Nynne. Material Nationality: Denmark at the 1900 Paris World’s Fair. 2013.
  • Clifton-Harvey, Melanie. “Getting to Know You”: A Costume Study of Twentieth Century-Fox’s The King and I, 1956. 2010.
  • * Clouse, Doug. MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan, an American Type Foundry. 2007.
  • Coes, Amy. Thomas Brooks: Cabinetmaker and Interior Decorator. 1999.
  • Cohen, Marilyn. The Material Culture of “I Love Lucy”. 2004.
  • Cohen, Nina. Rye Playland: Amusement Park Beautiful? 2007.
  • Cohn, Melissa. “Doing Over the Drawing Room”: The Drawing Room and Women’s Changing Social Status in The Novels of Edith Wharton. 2003.
  • Coleman, Cynthia. The Russian Imperial Family at Home at the Alexander Palace. 2001.
  • Comito, Kristine. To Adorn and Improve: American Art Needelwork and Taste, 1876-1900. 2003.
  • Cordova, Elena. Fashion & Futurism: Giacomo Balla and the Suit, 1913-1918. 2011.
  • Cortinovis, Genevieve. Photo Op: Framing Parisian Chic at the Concours d’Elegance 1936-1939. 2010.
  • Culp, Brandy. Artisan, Entrepreneur and Gentleman: Alexander Petrie and the Colonial Charleston Silver Trade. 2004.
  • D’Amato, Martina. “un veritable musée”: the Chabrières-Arlès Collection and Renaissance Decorative Arts between France and America. 2012.
  • Danalakis, Katherine. Furnishing the Greek House: Reconstructing the Domestic Interiors of Classical Greece. 2004.
  • Davidson, Sophie. Two Generations of Influence: Charles Lewis Tiffany and Phineas Taylor Barnum, and Louis Comfort Tiffany and Oscar Wilde. 1999.
  • Deason, Emily. Redeeming Value: A Discussion and Case Study of Salvage Culture in Brooklyn, New York. 2011.
  • * DeGregorio, William. Trompeuse Simplicité: Reconstructing the Ouevre, Personality, Clientele, and Decline of Augustabernard, 1928-1934. 2012.
  • De Filippis, Marybeth. Margarita Van Varick’s East Indian Goods: Design Inspiration for 17th- and Early 18th-Century Furnishings. 2006.
  • Deitsch, Elka. The Pugilist in Prints: Depictions of Daniel Mendoza and Boxing Jews in England during the Commercial Revolution. 2008.
  • de Kuyper, Daan. WENDINGEN: A Case Study of Dutch Modernism 1918-1931, with Special Reference to the Magazine’s Typography. 2000.
  • Deme, Edina. European Textile Designs for West Africans: “The Aesthetic of Imperfection.” 2000.
  • DeNormandie, Laura. Mary Gregory: Life/Work. 2002.
  • Dohne, Mary. Masculinity at Home: Bachelor Pads and the Seduction of the American Dad. 2003.
  • Domning, Julia. Regional Characteristics in American Silver Tea Sets: New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, 1810-1830. 2010.
  • Dover, Caitlin. Making Connections: Visualizations of American Telephony, 1900-1949. 2012.
  • Drakakis, Alexandra. Consuming the Cataclysm: Buying and Selling September 11, 2001. 2007.
  • Dude, Rosanna Eubank. Making the Wilderness a Destination: The Material Culture of Camping, 1850-1970. 2006.
  • * Dye, Hi’ilei Julia. “To All True Lovers of Arte and Knowledge”: Reading Sir Hugh Plat’s Delightes for Ladies in Early Modern England. 2009.
  • Einik, Nurit. Contexts in Design: Eszter Haraszty at Knoll Associates, B.H. Wragge and Company, and the American Pavilion at the Brussels World’s Fair. 2006.
  • Eleazar, Paula. Lancaster Place: The Development Process of a Middle-Class Subdivision in Houston, Texas, 1911-1924. 2006.
  • Elshafei, Yasmin. “faict A Molins ala PalMe”: Luxury Gardening Implements of the French Renaissance. 2006.
  • Emery, Susan. Eighteenth-Century Japanned Furniture. 2003.
  • * Eschapasse, Anne. The Impact of the French Revolution and the Dissolution of the Guilds on the Parisian Furniture Industry, 1789-1799. 1999.
  • Espinosa, Natalie. Arquitechura/México: Case Study of an Architecture and Design Magazine, 1938-1949. 2008.
  • Essner, Elizabeth. Frank Stanton’s Eye: Building Black Rock and the CBS Vision of Design. 2006.
  • Esterlis, Victoria. The Seventh Regiment Armory: The Social History of a New York Landmark. 2008.
  • Fabian, Erin. From the Silver Screen to the Department Store: How Hollywood Fashioned American Women. 2014.
  • Fanning, Colin. The Plastic System: Architecture, Childhood, and LEGO, 1949-2012. 2013.
  • Farrell, Molly. The Grove Park Inn: The Resort as Manifestation of the Commercialization of the Arts and Crafts Movement in America. 1996.
  • Feldman, Allison. Warmth and Friendly Glamour: Dorothy Draper as Brilliant Re-Brander of Interiors and Products. 2007.
  • Ferguson, Stephanie. Domino Magazine and the Cult of the Happy Home. 2010.
  • Fish, Elizabeth Kerr. The Islamic-Style Silver Produced by Tiffany & Company under Edward C. Moore. 1997.
  • Fister, Virginia. From the Studio to the Salon: Artists, Craftsmen, and Collaborative Environments in Eighteenth-Century France. 2015.
  • Flaherty, Susan Frances. Hobbit-holes, Tree Houses, and Towers: Production Design in The Lord of the Rings Films. 2007.
  • Flores, Patricia. A Gentleman’s Microcosm: Tapestries from the Sheldon Bedchamber at Chastleton House, Oxfordshire. 2007.
  • Forsyth, Barbara Hanson. An Investment in the Domestic Ideal: The History and Significance of the Bridal Registry in America. 2003.
  • Fox, Kate. A Primitive Lure: The Sidney Lanier Camp, 1906-1940. 2011.
  • * Fragopoulou, Maria Ernest. The Farnese Casket: A Study in Humanist Patronage and Iconography in Sixteenth-Century Rome. 2002.
  • Frankel, Elizabeth Caffry. Architectural Pottery: Marketing Modern Design. 2000.
  • Freeman, Helen McCall. Reconstructing the Interior: Case Studies of Arts and Crafts Period Rooms. 2007.
  • Friedman-Stadler, M. Zahava. Faith and Fear: A Contemporary Israeli Evil Eye Charm. 2014.
  • Fujii, Rina. Mr. Spectator and Mr. Shopper: Case Studies of Male Consumption in The Tatler and The Spectator, 1709-1714. 2008.
  • Gallagher, Brian. Instruments of Devotion, Objects of Delight: Augsburg House Altars from the Late Sixteenth to the Early Seventeenth Centuries. 1998.
  • Gardner, Andrew. From Suburban Kitchen to Pop Art Canvas: Women and American Domesticity in Tom Wesselmann’s Still Life #30, 1950-1963. 2015.
  • Gardner, Jeanne. “The Girl Who Sinned In Secret And Paid In Public!”: American Romance Comics, 1947-1954. 2011.
  • Germain, Colleen. The Dr. Henry Ginsburg Collection of Indian Painted Cottons Made for the Siamese Market, the Eighteenth through Nineteenth Centuries. 2010.
  • Gerstenecker, Elyse. “More Nearly a Home”: American Collegiate Residence Hall Design for Women, 1929-1941. 2008.
  • Gerwin, Timothy. Sytho-Siberian Motif Transfer to the Kushan Empire and Abbasid Samarra: Possible Origins of the Arabesque. 2007.
  • Gifford, Barbara Paris. Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Rethinking the London Years 1915-1923: A Case for the Textile Designs. 2004.
  • Gill, Jennifer. Re-Orienting the Vernacular: Arts & Crafts Theory and the Interpretation of Song-dynasty Ceramics by Bernard Leach, Yanagi Soetsu, and Potters in Their Circle, c. 1910-1940. 2008.
  • Goldkamp, Kate Michelson. American Social Guidance Films, 1945-1965: Teenagers, Social Ideals, and Products. 2011.
  • Good, Olivia. At Home in the Past: Tasha Tudor’s Lifestyle in Context. 2010.
  • Goodhouse, Andrew. “Keep Wishing While You Participate”: Spiritual Materiality and Social Agency in Yoko Ono’s Wish Tree. 2013.
  • Gonzalez, Sierra Araneta. Shopping for Modern Design: Three Case Studies in Contemporary Design Retail, 1964-2007. 2008.
  • Gordon, John. Selling Splendor: the House of Jewels and the American Luxury Market, 1937-1940. 2003.
  • Gorzka, Julia. Arts and Crafts Societies in America: The Division of Social and Aesthetic Reform. 1998.
  • Gordon-Fogelson, Robert. Sunar, Graves, and the Heyday of the Furniture Showroom, 1979-1983: Building a Link between Producers and Purchasers of Corporate Design. 2015.
  • Greenberg, Alyssa. Exposing the Rhetorics of Idealized Family Photographs: American Photographic Christmas Cards, 1930s through 1950s. 2011.
  • Greenwald, Shoshanna. Beyond the Cover: Margaret Armstrong’s Life and Work. 2012.
  • Griffith, Alexandra. Jean-François de Bastide’s La Petite Maison: The Decorative Arts, Architecture and the Intellectual Culture of the Ancien Régime. 2002.
  • Griffiths, Christine. “Not forgetting his perfumed Gloves”: Accessorizing Scent in Eighteenth-Century England. 2013.
  • Grunewald, Martina. The Commerce of Art: A Cultural History of Museum Merchandising, 1850-2004. 2005.
  • Gura, Judith. Edward J. Wormley: The Making, and Undoing, of a “Middle-Range” Modernist. 1999.
  • Gustafson, Jill. Freda Diamond: An American Industrial Designer. 2003.
  • Gutierrez-Folch, Ana. The Neoclassical Klismos Chair: Early Sources and Avenues of Diffusion. 2014.
  • Haley, Kate. From Target to Tar-gé: A Post-Modern Approach to Advertising Discount Design. 2006.
  • Hall, Katherine Rhoades. The Use and Significance of Mirrors in the French Domestic Interior, 1665-1789. 2006.
  • Hannah, Caroline. James Carr (1820-1904) and His New York City Pottery (1855-1889). 2000.
  • Harden, Edgar. Framemaking in 18th-century Paris: The Lives and Work of the Infroits and Cherins. 1998.
  • Hargrave, Michelle. Neoclassical Dress and Its Enemies: Female Neoclassical Dress in Georgian Satirical Prints and Prescriptive Literature, c. 1793-1820. 2003.
  • * Hartzell, Freyja Thorbjorn. Transcendant Earth: Clay, Craft and Culture in Germany, 1880-1930. 2004.
  • Haskins, Amanda. Une Mode Brute: Aspects of Brutalism and Traditional Japanese Aesthetics in the Work of Issey Miyake and Rei Kawakubo of Comme des Garçons, 1973-1983. 2009.
  • Heinz, Alice. Gustav Stickley and the Rise of American Arts and Crafts in the Twentieth-Century Antiques Market. 2012.
  • Hill, Linden. “Mod”-ifying the Medieval: Yves Saint Laurent and Roland Petit’s Notre Dame de Paris. 2015.
  • Hill, Susannah. Reed & Barton: The Electroplating Years, 1848-1889. 2000.
  • Hodson, Elise. Pupul Jayakar’s “Great Conversation”: the Roles of Design, Craft and the United States in Transforming Indian Identity and Industry, 1952-1965. 2009.
  • Hoff, Berit. Conversation Pits in Dialogue 1953-1958: The Conversation Pits in the J. Irwin and Xenia S. Miller House and Joe Price Studio. 2011.
  • Hogan, Maeve. Patchwork: Myth and Industry—A Study of Late Nineteenth-Century Printed Patchworks in Context. 2014.
  • Howard, Ella. A Comparative Study of Feminist Writings on Aspects of the History of Design and the Decorative Arts, 1970-1995. 1998.
  • Hughes, Eileen. Heart Brooches in Scotland & North America from the 15th-19th Centuries. 2004.
  • Hunter, Stacy. Native American Culture in Euro-American Life: A Transcultural Object History of Northeast North America and the Impact of the Early Contact Period. 2004.
  • Hyde, Aislinn. Icing on the Cake: The Form and Decoration of Wedding Cakes in the United Sates,1800-1950. 2011.
  • Inglesby, Roisin. “A Monumental Pillar Wherein You Will See Your Ancestors”: The Rhetoric of Word and Image in Sir William Dugdale’s The Antiquities of Warwickshire Illustrated. 2011.
  • Ingram, Jeannie. Image and Text: a Study of Sources, Meanings and Function of a Set of Sixteenth-Century Spice Plates Designed by the Engraver, P over M. 2004.
  • Irish Brakebill, Carol Anderson. William Hunt Diederich: Negotiating the Path from Sculpture to Decorative Arts 1910-1929. 1999.
  • Irving, Alexandra. Collective Creativity: Two Case Studies of Makers and Their Communal Living Environments in Providence, Rhode Island. 2011.
  • Israel, Mei-Ling. Learn to Draw with Jon Gnagy:The Legacy of America’s First Television Artist. 2011.
  • Iverson, Stephanie Day. Bonnie Cashin Before Bonnie Cashin Designs, Inc. 1999.
  • Jeffers, Grace. Machine Made Natural: The Decorative Products of the Formica Corporation, 1947-1962. 1998.
  • Jenrette, Emma Chandler. The Gift That Starts the Future Home: Lane Hope Chest Marketing, 1927-1960. 2011.
  • Jensen, Hadley. Shaped by the Camera: Benjamin Wittick and the Imaging of Craft in the American Southwest, 1878-1903. 2013.
  • Johnson, Edith. Transatlantic Frenchness: Defining French Style Aboard the Paris, the Ile-de-France, the Lafayette, and the Champlain. 2011.
  • Johnson, Kathryn. A Place of Her Own: Mrs. Jane Loudon’s Gardening for Ladies and the Flower Garden Companion as the Women’s Sphere in America, 1843-1893. 2007.
  • Jules, Rita. Sans Serif Letters in England, 1784-1860. 2006.
  • Kallab, Majda. Evergreens, the Residence of Charles S. Shultz (1839-1924): A Study in Late Nineteenth-Century Patronage, Collecting, and Consumer Behavior. 2002.
  • Kang, Suky. The Art Museum and the City: The Central Role of Public Education in Museum-City Relations. 2013.
  • Kaplan, Anna. Kidrobot and the Designer Art Toy Phenomenon in the United States. 2011.
  • Keenan, Annabel. Swid Powell: A Case Study in Celebrity Product Design with Special Reference to Richard Meier. 2015.
  • Kelly, Tara. The Power of the Word Enshrined: The Historical and Cultural Development of the Book Shrine in Ireland. 2007.
  • Kelly-Bowditch, Laura. Exhibiting the Process of the Past: A Recent History of Museum Conservation on Display. 2014.
  • Killian, Jacquelann Grace. The Artifactual Life of Mr. and Mrs. Jay Gould, 1863-1892. 2006.
  • Killmar, Jane. Avant-Garde Feminism: The Fashion Images and Shows of Rei Kawakubo and Comme des Garçons, 1975-1990. 2015.
  • Kim, Sarah. Bouchon Bistro: a Case Study of “French Bistro” Design and Culture in the United States. 2009.
  • Kinney, Hannah. Material of Memory: The Doccia Porcelain Factory’s statue al grandezza naturale (1745–1757). 2014.
  • Kinsel, Rick Alan. The Designs of the House of Coty. 1999.
  • Kis, Csongor Imre. Le Sacerdotesse dell’Atene d’Italia: Royal Female Patronage at the Bourbon Court of Parma in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century. 2006.
  • Klassen, Rebecca. Constructions: U.S. Fiber Artitsts and Pre-Columbian Peruvian Textiles. 2011.
  • Klos, Jennifer. The Fashioned Travel Case: Women’s Luggage in Postwar America, 1946-1960. 2007.
  • Klug, Emily. Allure of the Silent Beauties: Mannequins and Display in France and America, 1890-1970. 2006.
  • Kowalski, Alison. Art in Everyday Life and the Do-It-Yourself Soviet Fashion of Nadezhda Lamanova. 2014.
  • Kretchschmer, Christina. Jean Haure: Entrepreneur du Garde-Meuble. 2007.
  • Krick, Jessa. From Concept to Closet: Pendleton Woolen Mills and the Women’s 49’er Jacket, 1949-1961. 2003.
  • * Kuldna, Kersti. Porcelain and Politics: Case Study of Series “People of Russia” by Imperial Porcelain Manufactory c. 1780-1800. 2001.
  • Labaco, Ronald. Museum Dinnerware (1946): the Confluence of Designer, Manufacture, and Museum. 2001.
  • Labson, Eva. The Idea of Nature in Elizabethan and Stuart Embroideries: 1575-1700. 2008.
  • * Lanier, Jessica. The Post-Revolutionary Ceramics Trade in Salem, Massachusetts, 1783-1812. 2004.
  • Larsen, Christian. Módulo: Media, Modernism, and National Identity in Post-War Brazil. 2010.
  • Larson, Jennifer. Hillbilly Couture: The “Rhinestone Cowboy” Aesthetic of Nudie Cohen 1948-1966. 2004.
  • Laughlin, Erin. Les Dames aux Courses: Fashion at the Horse Races in French Fashion Journals, 1900-1939. 2009.
  • Lee, Craig. Case Studies in Corporate Identity: Architecture, Graphic Design, and Art Museums in Contemporary United States. 2011.
  • Lee, Karen. The Great Mughals and Their Patronage: Sumptuous Courtly Regalia and Jewels of the 17th and 18th Centuries. 2006.
  • Lemire, Jay Allen. Of Antiques and Antelopes: The Material Strategies of Arthur Stannard Vernay. 2013.
  • Leong, Evelyn. A Potter in the Making: the Craft of Dora Lunn. 2007.
  • Leslie, Claudia. The Marquis d’Aux’s Orange Trees: Pedigreed Plants in the Golden Age of American Gardens. 2009.
  • Levy, Jennifer. Hunting for Legitimacy: The Morgan Casket and the Court of Roger II. 2014.
  • * Lichtman, Sarah. House, Home, and Visions of American Domesticity: The 1959 American National Exhibition in Moscow. 2002.
  • Liddle, Kimberly. 97 Orchard Street, New York City: A Case Study for Common Grades of Wallpaper, c. 1890-1930. 1999.
  • Lie, Carolyn. Constructing an American Modernism: Marcel Breuer’s House in the Museum Garden (1949) and the Museum of Modern Art, NY. 2006.
  • Lillie, Julia. The Cult of Dürer in First World War German Printed Propaganda: From War Loan Posters to Simplicissimus. 2014.
  • Linderman, Nicole. An Examination of Emblematic Jewelry in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries in America. 1998.
  • Lome, Erica. “A Place of Demonstration”: Israel Sack’s “King” Hooper Mansion and the Business of American Antiques in the 1920s Colonial Revival. 2015.
  • London, Katrina. Aping the Aristocracy: Animals in the Painted Decoration of French Interiors, 1680-1758. 2012.
  • Lowenthal, Andrea. Middle Class Americans and the Rhetoric of Modern Architecture and Design, 1945-1955. 1996.
  • * Lufkin, Sophia. From Fifth Avenue to Faith Avenue: Mausoleum Design and Decoration at Temple Emanu-El’s Salem Fields Cemetery, 1890–1945. 2014.
  • Luitjen, Cassidy. Late Nineteenth-Century Shame and Rivalry Poles on the Northwest Coast. 2011.
  • Luria, Jaimie. Diné ‘Iikááh: Mediating Materiality and Meaning of Navajo Medicinal Practice. 2015.
  • Luski, Emily. Mirrors and Modernism in Viennese Café Design, ca. 1880-1914. 2010.
  • Lydiatt, Sara. Transcontinental Travels: Two American Limited Trains, 1900-1914. 2001.
  • MacNeil, Malcolm Neil. Unraveling the Mystery of an American Art Glass Rarity: The Quezal Art Glass and Decoration Company. 1997.
  • MacTiernan, Maggie. “The India Photographs”: A Case Study in Eames Photography. 2009.
  • * Maile, Margaret. Richard Kelly: American Architectural Lighting Design, From Johnson’s Glass House to Seagram’s Glass Box (1948-1958). 2002.
  • Maldonado, Gena. The Many Lives of the Boston Rocker. 2011.
  • Martin, Kristin. The Hispanic Society of America’s Collection of Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Ecclesiastical Textiles. 2006.
  • Master, Leah. A Highly Valued Education: Craft-based Learning For Women in Colonial and Early Federal New England. 2007.
  • Mates, Randi. Shredded: The History of Popular Paper Clothing. 2005.
  • May, Whitney. “Too Solemn to Attack”: Selling Distance from Commerce in the Beggarstaff Posters of Late Nineteenth Century England. 2012.
  • Maybee, Spice. Forming the Studio Craft Movement: Craft Horizons, 1941-1959. 2009.
  • Mayer, Barbara. Reynolda House: The Creation of an American Country House and Its Survival into the Present. 1997.
  • Maynard, Emily Wheat. The Extent of Ancient Influence in Italian Renaissance Jewelry. 2004.
  • McCormick, Heather Jane. Ernest Plassmann, 1822-1877: A New York Carver, Sculptor, Designer and Teacher. 1998.
  • McDaniel, Lauren. The New York City WPA Federal Art Project Poster Division: “Boondoggle” or Design Crucible? 2011.
  • McDonald, Anna. Calder Jewelry: A Case Study of a Lost Necklace. 2014.
  • McGoldrick, Emily. Authenticity, Technology, Property: Proenza Schouler and the Southwest. 2012.
  • McLeod, Sarah Brown. Martine: Poiret, Primitivism and Publicity. 2012.
  • McRee, Claire. The Debutante Slouch: Fashion and the Female Body in the United States, 1912–1925. 2015.
  • Microulis, Laura. Charles Hindley & Sons, London House Furnishers of the Nineteenth Century: A Case Study Examining History, Patronage, and Production. 1996.
  • Miller, Amy Pierce. The Selling of Nationalism: The Celtic Revival, Consumerism, and the Tara Brooch (1850-1925). 2000.
  • Miller, Deborah. Arts and Crafts and Their Application to Mohandas Gandhi’s Freedom Movement. 2000.
  • * Miller, Sequoia. Making Meaning: 1970s Youth Culture and Studio Pottery in the United States. 2012.
  • Mir, Rebecca. Leading the Way: Nineteenth-Century Guidebooks to New York City. 2012.
  • Mizrachi, Jessica. A Microculture of Second-Hand Culture: An Ethnographic Study of “Ithaca’s Fun and Affordable Antique Shop”. 2010.
  • Mohseni, Yasmine. A Gilded Life: Jean Royère in the Middle East. 2006.
  • Morgan, Amanda. “The Dreamers in the Moon”: Spirituality and Modernism in Glasgow Design at the Turn of the Century. 2007.
  • Morris, Sarah Rogers. Ornament Beyond Architecture: The Photograph and the Fragment in the Work of Richard Nickel. 2013.
  • Mucha, Alexis. Reflected in the Window: Simon Doonan’s Window Displays for Barneys New York, 1986-2000. 2007.
  • Muniz, Julie. Exotic Personae: Orientalism and Occidentalism in the Development of the Egyptian Cabaret Costume. 2002.
  • Murtha, Hillary. The Machine on the Table: Mechanical Dining Objects and American Middle-Class Gentility, 1850-1900. 1998.
  • Musicant, Marlyn. Maria Kipp: Modern Hand-Woven Textiles. 2002.
  • Musto, Jeanne-Marie. The Upper Cover of the Lindau Gospels: A Unique Synthesis of Artistry and Theology from the Reign of Charles the Bald. 1996.
  • Naimzadeh, Jennifer Dale. Carved Hardstone Vessels in Mughal India, 1605-1658. 2008.
  • Nash, Daphne. The Art Collection of Mary Jane Morgan: A Document of Taste in Nineteenth Century New York. 1999.
  • Newmark, Serena. Linley Furniture and Company: A Study in the Design and Marketing of Bespoke Furniture. 2007.
  • * Nicklas, Charlotte Crosby. All the World Laid by Art and Science at Her Feet: Color, Aniline Dyes, and Women’s Fashion in Mid-Nineteenth Century Great Britain and the United States. 2005.
  • Nisivoccia, Renee. Godly Taste: Architecture and Interiors of Mt. Tabor A Nineteenth-Century Methodist Camp Meeting. 1999.
  • Nissen, Aleesha. The Spectacle of Empire: John Ringling’s Bedroom in Ca d’Zan, Sarasota, Florica. 2009.
  • Obniski, Monica. Understanding Diversity in 1930s American Design: Gilbert Rohde’s Design for Living Interior at A Century of Progress, 1933. 2006.
  • Olshin, Jennifer. The Contribution of Percier and Fontaine to the History of the Decorative Arts. 1998.
  • Osborn, Amy. All the Little Treasures That Belong Nowhere Else: An Examination of Clutter in Aesthetic America. 2007.
  • Osborne, Ruth. Breathing Life Back Into the Ancien Régime: The Origins, Reappropriation, and Modern Museum Installation of Furniture from the Château de Saint-Cloud. 2012.
  • Palmer, Leanna. Between Protest and Politics: Atelier Grapus (1971-1991). 2011.
  • Papacosma, Kathryn. “For the Recreation of the Metropolis”: Brooklyn’s Prospect Park, 1865-1875. 2007.
  • Pastor, Julia. From E-tail to Retail: Warby Parker’s Visionary Quest for Cool. 2015.
  • Pelletier, Caron. Persistent Innovation: The Rambusch Company and American Twentieth-Century Stained Glass and Decorative Glass, 1930-1980. 2008.
  • Penaloza-Patzak, Catherine Brooke. Hochverehrter Lieber Herr Professor, Contextualizing the Exchanges Between Aby Warburg and Franz Boas 1896-1928. 2011.
  • Penque, Jaclyn. Representations of Hunting and Falconry of the Kitan Empire. 2010.
  • * Perers, Maria. G.A. Berg: Swedish Modernist Designer and Propagandist. 2003.
  • Perkins, Scott. Vignelli Associates and Saint Peter’s Church: An Expression of Worship through Design. 2002.
  • Perry, Rebecca. “Girlies” and “Grannies”: The Influence of Kate Greenaway on Historical Styles of Girls’ Dress in Late Nineteenth-Century Great Britain. 2010.
  • Pessa, Joanna. The Zephyr in Hand: A Social History of Western European Fashion Fans. 1999.
  • Peters, Miranda. Beyond the Painted Wall: Rufus Porter’s Publishing Career, 1820-1848. 2011.
  • Petty, Jason. Heard by the Eye: Old Violins in Victorian Britain. 2002.
  • Pildes, Miranda. Ars Melancholia: An Investigation into the Formal and Occult Virtues of Rudolfine Decorative Arts. 2002.
  • Pickman, Sarah. “Not a Trouser Button Must Be Missing”: Dress, Image, and Cultural Encounter in the Heroic Age of Polar Exploration. 2015.
  • * Pitman, Jennifer. China’s Presence at the Centennial Exhibition. 1999.
  • * Pitman, Sophie. Dolled Up: The Dissemination of Knowledge of National Dress and Foreign Fashions in Renaissance Europe. 2013.
  • Post, Melissa. Sung Stoneware as the Shaper of Modern Swedish Stoneware 1878-1978. 2001.
  • Poutasse, Marianna. Decorating a Hudson River Estate: Robert Bowne Suckley and Joseph Burr Tiffany at Wilderstein. 1995.
  • Preussner, Kristina. The Tears of the Heliades: The William Arnold Buffum Collection of Amber. 2009.
  • Priore, Alicia. An Analysis of the Ceramic Wares in the Cabinet of Francois Boucher (1703-1770): Premier Peintre du Roi. 1998.
  • * Pulichene, Nicole. Veiled Hands, Veiled Presence: The Donor Portrait of Otto I in the Presentation Panel of the Magdeburg Ivories. 2013.
  • Purcell, Anne Riker. A National Enthusiasm: Brass-Rubbing in England, c. 1830-1900. 2011.
  • Purtich, Kirstin. The Gentleman and the Bachelor: Fashioning the Male Consumer in 1920s Paris and Berlin. 2015.
  • Pyne, Ann. From Formula to a Distinctive Aesthetic: The Evolution of the Influence of the New York School of Fine and Applied Arts on Eleanor Stockstrom McMillen Brown. 2007.
  • * Quintero, Andrea. Too Close to Home: An Investigation of Staging in Real Estate. 2006.
  • Rabie, Haneen. Palestinian Embroidery After 1948: Counter-Hegemonic -National Narratives and Diasporic Identities. 2009.
  • Rahm, Danielle. Donald MacDonald: Stained Glass Pioneer? 2006.
  • Ramantanin, Constantine Alexander. W.A.S. Benson and Sir Edward Burne-Jones: A Working Friendship. 1999.
  • Ray, Meghan. The Byzantine Agricultural Landscape: the Evidence of the Geoponika. 2008.
  • Reed, Katherine. The Modern Priscilla: Colonial Revival in an American Women’s Magazine, from 1887 through 1930. 2003.
  • Reitmeyer, Ryan. The Expeditions of Roy Chapman Andrews and a Study of Mongolian Dress. 2007.
  • Riebe, Melissa. Sotto i Portici: Life in Seventeenth-Century Bologna Through the Games of Giuseppe Maria Mitelli (1634-1718). 2010.
  • Riegler, Shax. “Singing the Song of the Past”: Mario Praz, Collector and Historian of the Decorative Arts. 2006.
  • Rogers, Heather Wexler. The Impact of Technological and Societal Change on the Development of Ceramics in the Pacific Northwest as seen in the Willamette River Valley of Western Oregon 1850-1938. 2001.
  • Romano, Alexis. Emmanuelle Khanh and the Development of Stylisme in 1960s Paris. 2010.
  • Rosen, Quillan. Consumerism and Style: The Development of the Toilette in Eighteenth-Century France. 2010.
  • Rosenblum, Ariel. Tekhelet: The Biblical Colorant and Its Contemporary Revival. 2015.
  • Rossi, Lindsey. “Something Worth While”: Edward Everett Oakes (1891-1960), Boston Arts and Crafts Jeweler and Silversmith. 2010.
  • Rubinstein, Lily. Facing Death: Death Masks in the Nineteenth-Century United States. 2011.
  • Salisbury, Rachael Dealy. The Weight of Good Measure: A Reassessment of the Balance Weights from the Late Bronze Age Shipwreck at Uluburun and New Thoughts on the Zoomophic Weights. 2011.
  • Sanborn, Kellie. “In Search of that Unpurchasable Luxury-Health”: Sports, Vacations, and the Snowshoe Industry of Norway, Maine. 2010.
  • * Sánchez Gómez, Antonio. Chronicles of the Chuspas: The Life of Two Objects in Three Acts. 2014.
  • Sande-Friedman, Amy. Hero, Horror, and Heartache: Captain James Cook in Word and Image, 1768-1805. 2005.
  • Sands, Emily. Who’s Afraid of Ron Arad? Selling a Rebel, 1972-2009. 2010.
  • Saunders, Julie Elizabeth. The Honourable Peter Charles Larkin, Collector, Philanthropist, and Fifth High Commissioner for Canada in London: A Study on Canadian Collecting in the Decorative Arts. 1999.
  • Scanlan, Jennifer. Mita Di Nervi: A Case Study of Collaboration between Artists and Manufacturers in Twentieth-Century Italy. 2004.
  • Schlesinger, Natasha. An Examination of Bourgeois Interiors and Furniture in Early 19th Century France: The Merlin Family Collection of Furniture and Decorative Objects at Chateau de Villepreux. 1998.
  • Schwartz, Yitzchak. Building the Religious Future: Popular Modernism and Progressivism in Post-Civil War Cong. B’nai Jeshurun, Newark and Trinity Church, Boston. 2013.
  • Scully, Emma. A Reinterpretation of the 1941 Indian Arts of the United States Exhibition. 2014.
  • Seaton, Nancy. Modern Landscapes: The Role of Twentieth Century Science in Design. 2008.
  • Seddon, Klara. Tearooms & Teahouses: Expressions of Literati and Merchant Culture in Late Ming China. 2008.
  • Setliff, Eric. “On a Crusade”: Clair Stewart and Graphic Design in Canada. 2001.
  • Semmig, Amy. Evidence for the Reconstruction of the Boxes From the Tomb of Sithathoryunet. 2011.
  • Sharpe, Adrienne. Literary Inspirations, Ancient Touchstones, and Vanished Legends: Morris & Company’s contributions to, and Arts and Crafts Influences upon, three American Commissions, c. 1870-1896. 2006.
  • Sheehan, Patrick. French Eighteenth-Century Tôle Mounted Furniture: Evaluation of a Medium. 2002.
  • Shinnick, Kaitlin. The Jewelry of Josephine Hartwell Shaw. 2008.
  • Shkolnikova, Nadezhda. From Russian Traditional Dress to Western Fashion: A Case Study of Russian Merchant Costume (1785-1850). 2002.
  • Silbert, Susan. Developing a Market for Studio Glass: A Case Study of the Heller Gallery, 1971-1982. 2011.
  • Silverberg, Heidi. Portable Worlds: Travel, Tourism and the Contemporary Artist’s Photo Book. 2008.
  • Simons, Theodora. Historicism in Charleston 1825-1850. 2000.
  • Skogh, Lisa. The Konstkabinett of Swedish Dowager Queen Hedvig Eleonora of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (1636-1715) - A Reconstruction of Its Idea and Content. 2005.
  • Smails, Arcadia Elizabeth. Similar Differences: ‘Primitivism’ and the Quest for a Multicultural Modernism, The Museum of Modern Art, 1933-1984. 2006.
  • Snyder, Nell. Russel Wright’s Dragon Rock: Public Showroom and Private Retreat. 2007.
  • Snyder, Whitney. Ferns in American Popular Culture, 1860-1910. 1999.
  • * Sorensen, Kimberly. Prints Charming: Nineteenth-Century New York Cake Boards and New Year’s Cake. 2011.
  • Speers, Laura. Farming, Cooking, and Eating by the Book: English Household Manuals in Colonial Virginia. 2013.
  • Spink, Sara. Beyond Illustration: Walter Crane’s Interior Decorations and Designs. 2012.
  • Spinozzi, Adrienne. The Life and Works of Sarah Agnes Estelle Irvine (1885-1970). 2006.
  • Spofford, Virginia. Mid-Nineteenth-Century Collegiate Class Albums and George Kendall Warren. 2014.
  • Spriggs, Remi. The Domestic Glassware of James Hogan (1883-1948). 2003.
  • Stacy, Bonnie. The Image of Ancient Egypt in American Material Culture, 1845-1922. 2005.
  • Steelman, Melanie. George Frederick Kunz and His Gemological Impact on the Decorative Arts and Path Design at Tiffany & Co. 2009.
  • Steinhardt, Anna Hoffman. La Reine et le Fermier: Marie-Antoinette’s Hameau in Context. 2008.
  • Stern, Laura. Eco Chic: The Influence of Contemporary Aesthetics on Green Product Design in the 21st Century. 2007.
  • Stewart, Courtney. (R)evolutions in Dress and Ritual: Mevlevi Garments and Cultural Objects. 2010.
  • St. George, Elizabeth. Aliso Village, Los Angeles: A Case Study of a Mid-Twentieth Century Attempt at Racially Integrated Public Housing. 2010.
  • * Stielau, Allison. Habits of Encounter: The Prioress’s Tale Cabinet. 2009.
  • Stockdale, Minda. The Companionate Marriage: Tracing an Iconographic Theme on English Embroidered Furnishings under the Restoration. 2015.
  • Stone, Regine. Raphael’s Design for a Perfume Burner: Sources, Meaning, and Legacy. 2003.
  • Sullivan, Elizabeth. William Blake and the Art of the Book: Visions of the Daughters of Albion. 2002.
  • Sunwoo, Irene. Archigram and the Constancy of Change: Michael Webb’s Suitaloon and Cushicle, 1966-2002. 2003.
  • Swanstrom, Audrey. Hans Collaert I’s Arabesque Jewelry Pendants and Sixteenth-Century Ornament. 2007.
  • Sweeney, Alison. Accessorizing a War: Jewelry in the United States of America, 1941-1945. 2008.
  • Swenson, Genevieve Ward. Mary Harrod Northend and the Colonial Revival Interior. 2005.
  • Symons, Michele Leighton. Canadian Participation in the Great Exhibition of 1851. 2003.
  • Tahk, Kathleen. At Home in the East: Margit Emmerich’s Photographs of the East German Interior, 1975-1979. 2010.
  • * Talbot, Lee Armstrong. Seventeenth-Century Chinese Silk Furnishing Textiles in New York Collections. 2001.
  • * Tartsinis, Ann Marguerite. “Intimately and Unquestionably Our Own”: The American Museum of Natural History and Its Influence on American Textile and Fashion Industries, 1915-1927. 2011.
  • Tavares, Jonathan. Morion: Helmet of the Early Modern Soldier. 2007.
  • Tedesco, Beth. William Hamilton, Thomas Hope and the Hamilton Vases in the Hope Colletion. 2005.
  • Thornton, Beatrice. An Abstract Documentarian: Photography as Design Process in Jan Yoors Tapestries, 1956-1977. 2015.
  • Thornton, Mike. Friend or Foe? A Study of the Model Aircraft Project of World War II. 2010.
  • Tilles, Rebecca. Reconstruction of Marie-Antoinette’s Corbeille de Mariage: A Model of Royal Commemorative Furniture and Early Neoclassical Design. 2007.
  • Topolnisky, Sonya. What That Hillbilly Cat Dragged In: Elvis Presley’s Transgressive Self Fashioning, 1954-1958. 2008.
  • Trainer, Mary Uihlein. The Jewelry of Lluis Masriera and Catalan Modernisme in Barcelona. 2002.
  • Trautman, Charlotte. Dress for the Deep: A Study of the Clothing Worn by American Whalemen Between 1815 and 1880. 2011.
  • Tredway, Thomas. Constructing Schiaparelli: Interiors, Persona, and Commerce. 2006.
  • Tripp, Cynthia. The Princely Pavillions of Haga and Bagatelle. 2001.
  • Twickler, Sharon. The Things He Carried: Combing Masculine Identity in the Age of the Moustache. 2013.
  • Tycz, Katherine. “Per piacermi a lo specchio, qui m’addorno”: Female Figural Mirror Frames in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy. 2013.
  • Van Deun, Johanna. The Clothing of Dries Van Noten, 1985-2008. 2009.
  • van Roijen, Valaer. The Sale of Lady Blessington: Creating Narratives and Establishing Value in Nineteenth-Century Estate Sales in London. 2011.
  • Van Saun, Freya. The Road to Beauty: Stewart Culin and the American Textile and Clothing Industries. 1999.
  • Vanderpool, Emily. “Livable Qualities of Good Taste”: Defining the Modern in House and Garden’s “Little House” and W. & J. Sloane’s “House of Years,” 1932-34. 2011.
  • Vondran, Elizabeth. A Curious Collection: The Havemeyer Collection of Japanese Textiles at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2012.
  • Vu, Han Nguyen. Three Projects Demonstrating Digital Technology as Tools for Museum Professionals. 2003.
  • Wahlberg, Katherine. Cornelius Kierstede: Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century Silversmiths of New York and Connecticut. 2004.
  • Wainwright, Jenna. Collecting Junk: Providence Throwaway Style, 1995-Present. 2008.
  • Walton, Jennifer. The Brooklyn Sanitary Fair: Marketing Historicism and Promoting Benevolence in Civil War America. 2005.
  • Wang, Lanzhen. Extravagance Refurnished: Interior Display in the Jing Ping Mei Illustrations of the Early Qing Era, 1650-1750. 2015.
  • Ward, John. Recovering Glory: A Reconstruction of the Upholstery of the Thierry de Ville d’Avray Bedroom Suite at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 1998.
  • * Warsh, Marie Ray. “The Truest Reform Work”: The Children’s School Farm, New York City, 1902-1931. 2007.
  • Waterman, Eliza. Design Reform and the Furniture Workshops of the Byrdcliffe and Roycroft Arts and Crafts Colonies. 2000.
  • * Waycott, Laurel. The Aquarium in America: 1850-1920. 2008.
  • Wayt, Hampton. Raymond Loewy’s Lucky Strike Story: What It Tells About Raymond Loewy, His Relationship with Packaging, and Packaging’s Relationship with Industrial Design. 2011.
  • Webster, Deborah. Philadelphia’s Table Damask Industry in Frankford: A Reflection of 19th Century American Industry and Culture. 1999.
  • Wegner, Emma. The Cleveland Fountain: Courtly Magnificence and Allegory in a Fourteenth-century Metalwork Fountain. 2006.
  • Whitesell, Steve. Henry Stuart Ortloff and Henry Bond Raymore as Exemplars of Popular Garden Writing and Landscape Design in Mid-Century America. 2007.
  • Wilmot, Christie. “A Novel and Fascinating Game With Plenty of Excitement on Land and Sea”: Late 19th Century Travel-Themed Board Games of the United States. 2011.
  • Wimmer, Tricia Anne. The Californian; for the California way of life: Fashioning a New American Lifestyle 1945-1954. 2006.
  • Wing, Sharon Lee. Saint Ann’s Church: An American Venetian Gothic Revival Episcopal Church. 2000.
  • Winick, Amber. Zoo Nation: Budapest Zoo and the Lessons of National Romantic Style, 1908-1950. 2012.
  • Winter, Meredyth. “Hand-craft” & Handicraft: Exploring the Material Culture of Late Antique Zafār. 2013.
  • Wishner, Leigh. How the Leopard Changes Its Spots: Leopard in Western Fashion History, 1720-1960. 2004.
  • Youngman, Catherine. The Tomb of the Wanli Emperor and Costume at the Late Ming Court. 2003.
  • Zamir, Einav. Constructing Reality: The Implications of Craft-Referential Pottery in Ancient Greece. 2012.
  • Zilber, Emily. “A Delicate Link To Their Far Away Country:” The Scuola d’Industrie Italiane (1905-1927) and the Translation of the Nineteenth Century Italian Reproduction Textile Workshop into an American Context. 2007.
  • Zucker, Emily. Fabricating Selves: Women and Cloth Art Dolls. 2007.

* Asterisks indicate winners of the Clive Wainwright Thesis Award and the Mr. & Mrs. Raymond J. Horowitz Foundation for the Arts Award. Clive Wainwright was a distinguished furniture and design historian, who spent more than thirty years at the Victoria and Albert Museum. The Wainwright Award was established by the director of the Bard Graduate Center to honor his memory. The Mr. & Mrs. Raymond J. Horowitz Foundation for the Arts Award, inaugurated in 2014, honors an outstanding qualifying paper on an American subject.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

General Format

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all APA citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

You can also watch our APA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel.

General APA Guidelines

Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11"), with 1" margins on all sides. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font.

Include a page header  (also known as the "running head") at the top of every page. To create a page header/running head, insert page numbers flush right. Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left using all capital letters. The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.

Major Paper Sections

Your essay should include four major sections: the Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References.

Title Page

The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name, and the institutional affiliation. Include the page header (described above) flush left with the page number flush right at the top of the page. Please note that on the title page, your page header/running head should look like this:

Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER

Pages after the title page should have a running head that looks like this:

TITLE OF YOUR PAPER

After consulting with publication specialists at the APA, OWL staff learned that the APA 6th edition, first printing sample papers have incorrect examples of running heads on pages after the title page. This link will take you to the APA site where you can find a complete list of all the errors in the APA's 6th edition style guide.

Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.

Beneath the title, type the author's name: first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Do not use titles (Dr.) or degrees (PhD).

Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.

Image Caption: APA Title Page

Abstract

Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header (described above). On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks).

Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph, double-spaced. Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.

You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.

Image Caption: APA Abstract Page

Please see our Sample APA Paper resource to see an example of an APA paper. You may also visit our Additional Resources page for more examples of APA papers.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in APA

Individual Resources

Contributors' names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Contributors' names (Last edited date). Title of resource. Retrieved from http://Web address for OWL resource

 

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

In-Text Citations: The Basics

Reference citations in text are covered on pages 169-179 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.

Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research, for example, Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found...

APA citation basics

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining

  • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
  • If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media, There Is Nothing Left to Lose.

    (Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.)

  • When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
  • Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo."
  • Italicize the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard of Oz; Friends.
  • Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."

Short quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

Long quotations

Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Jones's (1998) study found the following:

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citingsources. This difficulty could be attributed to thefact that many students failed to purchase astyle manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summary or paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.

Citing an Author or Authors

A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.

Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...

(Wegener & Petty, 1994)

A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.

(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

(Kernis et al., 1993)

In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

Harris et al. (2001) argued...

(Harris et al., 2001)

Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.

A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).

Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)

Second citation: (MADD, 2000)

Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list (viz., alphabetically), separated by a semi-colon.

(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)

Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.

(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that...

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.

Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

Citing Indirect Sources

If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.

Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.

Electronic Sources

If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.

Kenneth (2000) explained...

Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").

Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

Sources Without Page Numbers

When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para. 5). If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like webpages, people can use the "find" function in their browser to locate any passages you cite.

According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

Note: Never use the page numbers of webpages you print out; different computers print webpages with different pagination.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Footnotes and Endnotes

APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce. However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document, APA details the use of two types of footnotes: content and copyright.

When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses.

Scientists examined—over several years1—the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak.2 (These have now been transferred to the Chauan Museum.3)

When using the footnote function in a word-processing program like Microsoft Word, place all footnotes at the bottom of the page on which they appear. Footnotes may also appear on the final page of your document (usually this is after the References page). Center the word “Footnotes” at the top of the page. Indent five spaces on the first line of each footnote. Then, follow normal paragraph spacing rules. Double-space throughout.

1 While the method of examination for the wooly-wooly yak provides important insights to this research, this document does not focus on this particular species.

Content Notes

Content notes provide supplemental information to your readers. When providing content notes, be brief and focus on only one subject. Try to limit your comments to one small paragraph.

Content notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail elsewhere.

1 See Blackmur (1995), especially chapters 3 and 4, for an insightful analysis of this extraordinary animal.

Copyright Permission Notes

If you quote more than 500 words of published material or think you may be in violation of “Fair Use” copyright laws, you must get the formal permission of the author(s). All other sources simply appear in the reference list.

Follow the same formatting rules as with content notes for noting copyright permissions. Then attach a copy of the permission letter to the document.

If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information. You should also submit written permission along with your work. Begin the citation with “Note.”

Note. From “Title of the article,” by W. Jones and R. Smith, 2007, Journal Title, 21, p. 122. Copyright 2007 by Copyright Holder. Reprinted with permission.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Reference List: Basic Rules

Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.

Basic Rules

  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
  • Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name. After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work.
  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
  • For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
  • Present the journal title in full.
  • Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title.
    • For example: ReCALL not RECALL or Knowledge Management Research & Practice not Knowledge Management Research and Practice. 
  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
  • When referring to books, chapters, articles, or webpages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. 
  • Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
  • Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. For more information, see page 193 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., 2nd printing.
Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Reference List: Author/Authors

The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.).

Single Author

Last name first, followed by author initials.

Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.

Two Authors

List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and."

Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.

Three to Seven Authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.

Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.

More Than Seven Authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names. 

Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.

Organization as Author

American Psychological Association. (2003).

Unknown Author

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's, 1993).

Two or More Works by the Same Author

Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).

Berndt, T. J. (1981).

Berndt, T. J. (1999).

When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.

Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.

Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.

References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.

Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6, 629-654.

Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: "Berdnt (1981a) makes similar claims..."

Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416.

Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords

Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword (whatever title is applicable) as the chapter of the book.

Funk, R., & Kolln, M. (1998). Introduction. In E. W. Ludlow (Ed.), Understanding English grammar (pp. 1-2). Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Reference List: Articles in Periodicals

Basic Form

APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period. The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized. If a DOI has been assigned to the article that you are using, you should include this after the page numbers for the article. If no DOI has been assigned and you are accessing the periodical online, use the URL of the website from which you are retrieving the periodical. 

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy 

Article in Journal Paginated by Volume

Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Article in Journal Paginated by Issue

Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.

Article in a Magazine

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Article in a Newspaper

Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4.

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

Letter to the Editor

Moller, G. (2002, August). Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 287(2), 12.

Review

Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control, by R. A. Wicklund & M. Eckert]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466-467.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Reference List: Books

Basic Format for Books

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Note: For "Location," you should always list the city and the state using the two letter postal abbreviation without periods (New York, NY).

Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Edited Book, No Author

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Edited Book with an Author or Authors

Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. K. V. Kukil (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.

A Translation

Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814)

Note: When you cite a republished work, like the one above, in your text, it should appear with both dates: Laplace (1814/1951).

Edition Other Than the First

Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Note: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp." before the numbers: (pp. 1-21). This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references, except for newspapers.

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.

Multivolume Work

Wiener, P. (Ed.). (1973). Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Scribner's.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Reference List: Other Print Sources

An Entry in an Encyclopedia

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Work Discussed in a Secondary Source

List the source the work was discussed in:

Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.

NOTE: Give the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al. and you did not read the original work, list the Coltheart et al. reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation:

In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), ...

Dissertation Abstract

Yoshida, Y. (2001). Essays in urban transportation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 7741A.

Dissertation, Published

Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order Number)

Dissertation, Unpublished

Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of Institution, Location.

Government Document

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

For information about citing legal sources in your reference list, see the University of Nebraska, Kearney page on Citing Legal Materials in APA Style.

Report From a Private Organization

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Conference Proceedings

Schnase, J. L., & Cunnius, E. L. (Eds.). (1995). Proceedings from CSCL '95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

Please note: There are no spaces used with brackets in APA. When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Please note, too, that the OWL still includes information about print sources and databases for those still working with these sources.

Article From an Online Periodical

Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from
http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving

Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs

Please note: In August of 2011 the formatting recommendations for DOIs changed. DOIs are now rendered as an alpha-numeric string which acts as an active link. According to The APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th edition, you should use the DOI format which the article appears with. So, if it is using the older numeric string, use that as the DOI. If, however, it is presented as the newer alpha-numeric string, use that as the DOI. The Purdue OWL maintains examples of citations using both DOI styles.

Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many-but not all-publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document. 

Note that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed." This button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI. Find DOI's from print publications or ones that go to dead links with CrossRef.org's "DOI Resolver," which is displayed in a central location on their home page.

Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or http://doi.org/10.0000/0000

Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

Wooldridge, M.B., & Shapka, J. (2012). Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33(5), 211-218. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2012.05.005

Article From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require the URL of the journal home page. Remember that one goal of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article; providing the journal home page aids readers in this process.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

Article from a Database

Please note: APA states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time (p. 192). However, the OWL still includes information about databases for those users who need database information.

When referencing a print article obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library), provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work). By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number or database URL at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required.

If you are citing a database article that is available in other places, such as a journal or magazine, include the homepage's URL. You may have to do a web search of the article's title, author, etc. to find the URL.

For articles that are easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information. Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis. For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages 187-192 of the Publication Manual.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125. Retrieved from
http://www.fakeexamplehomepage.com/full/url/

Abstract

If you only cite an abstract but the full text of the article is also available, cite the online abstract as any other online citations, adding "[Abstract]" after the article or source name. However, if the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source.

Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: Two prison case studies [Abstract]. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58.

Hendricks, J., Applebaum, R., & Kunkel, S. (2010). A world apart? Bridging the gap between theory and applied social gerontology. Gerontologist, 50(3), 284-293. Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database. (Accession No. 50360869)

Newspaper Article

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from
http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/06/psychiatry-handbook-linked-to-drug-industry/?_r=0

Electronic Books

Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name. For references to e-book editions, be sure to include the type and version of e-book you are referencing (e.g., "[Kindle DX version]"). If DOIs are available, provide them at the end of the reference.

 

De Huff, E. W. (n.d.). Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/taytay.html


Davis, J. (n.d.). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. Available from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-9780931686108-0

Kindle Books

To cite Kindle (or other e-book formats) you must include the following information: The author, date of publication, title, e-book version, and either the Digital Object Identifer (DOI) number, or the place where you downloaded the book. Please note that the DOI/place of download is used in-place of publisher information. 

 

Here’s an example:

 

Stoker, B. (1897). Dracula [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com

Chapter/Section of a Web Document or Online Book Chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine. In Apache HTTP Server version 1.3 documentation (Apache modules). Retrieved from http://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/mod/mod_rewrite.html

Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J. S. Bough and G. B. DuBois (Eds.), A century of growth in America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.

NOTE: Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section, not the home page of the Web site.

Online Book Reviews

Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting. (The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal.) In brackets, write "Review of the book" and give the title of the reviewed work. Provide the web address after the words "Retrieved from," if the review is freely available to anyone. If the review comes from a subscription service or database, write "Available from" and provide the information where the review can be purchased.

Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us]. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/27/books/review/Zachareck
-t.html?pagewanted=2

Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce [Review of the books Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce's critics: Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce's messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self]. Modern Fiction Studies, 50(1), 163-173. Available from Project MUSE Web site: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/modern_fiction_studies/toc/mfs52.1.html

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment target in Parkinson's disease. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 3295214)

Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authors' names). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify (n.d.) if no date is present in the entry.

Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism

Online Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies

Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/alt_formats/hpb-dgps/pdf/intactiv/hiv-vih-aids-sida-prison-carceral_e.pdf

Data Sets

Point readers to raw data by providing a Web address (use "Retrieved from") or a general place that houses data sets on the site (use "Available from").

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data)

Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information.

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). [Graph illustration the SORCE Spectral Plot May 8, 2008]. Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from http://lasp.colorado.edu/cgi-bin/ion-p?page=input_data_for_ spectra.ion

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets (e.g. [Interview transcript, Interview audio file]):

Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral History 2 [Interview transcript]. Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Histories Project Web site: http:// www11.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/oral_histories.htm

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site: http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ501/Hallam/
index.html

Roberts, K. F. (1998). Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://siri.uvm.edu/ppt/40hrenv/index.html

Nonperiodical Web Document or Report

List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information; don't be lazy. If there is a page like http://www.somesite.com/somepage.htm, and somepage.htm doesn't have the information you're looking for, move up the URL to http://www.somesite.com/):

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

 

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

NOTE: When an Internet document is more than one Web page, provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document. Also, if there isn't a date available for the document use (n.d.) for no date.

To cite a YouTube video, the APA recommends following the above format. 

Computer Software/Downloaded Software

Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.

Ludwig, T. (2002). PsychInquiry [computer software]. New York: Worth.

Software that is downloaded from a Web site should provide the software’s version and year when available.

Hayes, B., Tesar, B., & Zuraw, K. (2003). OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software (Version 2.1) [Software]. Available from http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/otsoft/

E-mail

E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting

Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL where the message is archived (e.g. "Message posted to..., archived at...").

Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25]. Message posted to http://groups.earthlink.com/forum/messages/00025.html

Blog (Weblog) and Video Blog Post

Include the title of the message and the URL. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name.

J Dean. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.spring.org.uk/the1sttransport

 

Psychology Video Blog #3 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqM90eQi5-M

Wikis

Please note that the APA Style Guide to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (like Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects that cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries.

OLPC Peru/Arahuay. (n.d.). Retrieved April 29, 2011 from the OLPC Wiki: http://wiki.laptop. org/go/OLPC_Peru/Arahuay

Audio Podcast

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Bell, T., & Phillips, T. (2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science @ NASA Podcast. Podcast retrieved from http://science.nasa.gov/podcast.htm

Video Podcasts

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7]. Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from http://www.adveeducation.com

For more help with citing electronic sources, please use these links:

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources

Interviews, Email, and Other Personal Communication

No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in your main text only.

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

Motion Picture

Basic reference list format:

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Note: If a movie or video tape is not available in wide distribution, add the following to your citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name, full address and zip code).

A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National Availability

Smith, J. D. (Producer), & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability

Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writing labs: A history [Motion picture]. (Available from Purdue University Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907)

Television Broadcast or Series Episode

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of broadcast or copyright). Title of broadcast [Television broadcast or Television series]. In P. Producer (Producer). City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.

Single Episode of a Television Series

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In P. Producer (Producer), Series title. City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.

Wendy, S. W. (Writer), & Martian, I. R. (Director). (1986). The rising angel and the falling ape [Television series episode]. In D. Dude (Producer), Creatures and monsters. Los Angeles, CA: Belarus Studios.

Television Broadcast

Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly news hour [Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Central Broadcasting Service.

A Television Series

Bellisario, D. L. (Producer). (1992). Exciting action show [Television series]. Hollywood, CA: American Broadcasting Company.

Music Recording

Songwriter, W. W. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).

Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London, England: Big Pig Music Limited.

For more about citing audiovisual media, see pages 209-210 of the APA Publication Manual 6th Edition, second printing.

For information about citing legal sources in your reference list, see the Westfield State College page on Citing Legal Materials in APA Style.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Additional Resources

It's always best to consult the Publication Manual first for any APA question. If you are using APA style for a class assignment, it's a good idea to consult your professor, advisor, TA, or other campus resources for help with using APA style—they're the ones who can tell you how the style should apply in your particular case. 

Print Resources

Here are some print resources for using APA style. Click The Purdue OWL does not make any profit from nor does it endorse these agencies; links are merely offered for information. Most of these books are probably available in your local library. From the American Psychological Association:

  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) (ISBN 13: 978-1-4338-0561-5; ISBN 10: 1-4338-0561-8)
  • Mastering APA Style: Instructor's Resource Guide (ISBN: 1557988900)
  • Mastering APA Style: Student's Workbook and Training Guide (ISBN: 143380557X)
  • Presenting Your Findings: A Practical Guide for Creating Tables (ISBN: 143380705X)
  • Displaying Your Findings: A Practical Guide for Creating Figures, Posters, and Presentations (ISBN: 1433807076X)

From other publishers:

  • Writing With Style: APA Style Made Easy (ISBN: 084003167X)
  • Writing With Style: APA Style for Social Work (ISBN: 084003198X)

Online Resources from the APA

Other Online Resources: Documenting and Referencing Sources

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Types of APA Papers

There are two common types of papers written in fields using APA Style: the literature review and the experimental report. Each has unique requirements concerning the sections that must be included in the paper.

Literature review

A literature review is a critical summary of what the scientific literature says about your specific topic or question. Often student research in APA fields falls into this category. Your professor might ask you to write this kind of paper to demonstrate your familiarity with work in the field pertinent to the research you hope to conduct.

A literature review typically contains the following sections:

  • Title page
  • Introduction section
  • List of references

Some instructors may also want you to write an abstract for a literature review, so be sure to check with them when given an assignment. Also, the length of a literature review and the required number of sources will vary based on course and instructor preferences.

NOTE: A literature review and an annotated bibliography are not synonymous. If you are asked to write an annotated bibliography, you should consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for the APA Format for Annotated Bibliographies.

Experimental report

In many of the social sciences, you will be asked to design and conduct your own experimental research. If so, you will need to write up your paper using a structure that is more complex than that used for just a literature review. We have a complete resource devoted to writing an experimental report in the field of psychology here.

This structure follows the scientific method, but it also makes your paper easier to follow by providing those familiar cues that help your reader efficiently scan your information for:

  • Why the topic is important (covered in your introduction)
  • What the problem is (also covered in your introduction)
  • What you did to try to solve the problem (covered in your methods section)
  • What you found (covered in your results section)
  • What you think your findings mean (covered in your discussion section)

Thus an experimental report typically includes the following sections.

  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Method
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Appendices(if necessary)
  • Tables and/or figures (if necessary)

Make sure to check the guidelines for your assignment or any guidelines that have been given to you by an editor of a journal before you submit a manuscript containing the sections listed above.

As with the literature review, the length of this report may vary by course or by journal, but most often it will be determined by the scope of the research conducted.

Other papers

If you are writing a paper that fits neither of these categories, follow the guidelines about General Format, consult your instructor, or look up advice in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

When submitting a manuscript to a journal, make sure you follow the guidelines described in the submission policies of that publication, and include as many sections as you think are applicable to presenting your material. Remember to keep your audience in mind as you are making this decision. If certain information is particularly pertinent for conveying your research, then ensure that there is a section of your paper that adequately addresses that information.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

APA Stylistics: Avoiding Bias

Researchers who use APA often work with a variety of populations, some of whom tend to be stereotyped by the use of labels and other biased forms of language. Therefore, APA offers specific recommendations for eliminating bias in language concerning race, disability, and sexuality.

Make Adjustments to Labels

Although you should avoid labeling whenever possible, it is sometimes difficult to accurately account for the identity of your research population or individual participants without using language that can be read as biased. Making adjustments in how you use identifiers and other linguistic categories can improve the clarity of your writing and minimize the likelihood of offending your readers.

In general, you should call people what they prefer to be called, especially when dealing with race and ethnicity. But sometimes the common conventions of language inadvertently contain biases towards certain populations - e.g. using "normal" in contrast to someone identified as "disabled." Therefore, you should be aware of how your choice of terminology may come across to your reader, particularly if they identify with the population in question.

You can find an in-depth discussion of this issue and specific recommendations for how to appropriately represent people in your text on the APA website on the following pages:

Avoid Gendered Pronouns

While you should always be clear about the sex identity of your participants (if you conducted an experiment), so that gender differences are obvious, you should not use gender terms when they aren't necessary. In other words, you should not use "he," "his" or "men" as generic terms applying to both sexes.

APA does not recommend replacing "he" with "he or she," "she or he," "he/she," "(s)he," "s/he," or alternating between "he" and "she" because these substitutions are awkward and can distract the reader from the point you are trying to make. The pronouns "he" or "she" inevitably cause the reader to think of only that gender, which may not be what you intend.

To avoid the bias of using gendered pronouns:

  • Rephrase the sentence
  • Use plural nouns or plural pronouns - this way you can use "they" or "their"
  • Replace the pronoun with an article - instead of "his," use "the"
  • Drop the pronoun - many sentences sound fine if you just omit the troublesome "his" from the sentence
  • Replace the pronoun with a noun such as "person," "individual," "child," "researcher," etc.

For more about addressing gender in academic writing, visit the OWL's resource on use.

Find Alternative Descriptors

To avoid unintentional biases in your language, look to the parameters of your research itself. When writing up an experimental report, describe your participants by the measures you used to classify them in the experiment, as long as the labels are not offensive.

Example: If you had people take a test measuring their reaction times and you were interested in looking at the differences between people who had fast reaction times and those with slow reaction times, you could call the first group the "fast reaction time group" and the second the "slow reaction time group."

Also, use adjectives to serve as descriptors rather than labels. When you use terms such as "the elderly" or "the amnesiacs," the people lose their individuality. One way to avoid this is to insert an adjective (e.g., "elderly people," "amnesic patients"). Another way is to mention the person first and follow this with a descriptive phrase (e.g., "people diagnosed with amnesia"), although it can be cumbersome to keep repeating phrases like this.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

APA Stylistics: Basics

Writing in APA is more than simply learning the formula for citations or following a certain page layout. APA also includes the stylistics of your writing, from point of view to word choice.

Point of View and Voice

When writing in APA Style, you can use the first person point of view when discussing your research steps ("I studied ...") and when referring to yourself and your co-authors ("We examined the literature ..."). Use first person to discuss research steps rather than anthropomorphising the work. For example, a study cannot "control" or "interpret"; you and your co-authors, however, can.

In general, you should foreground the research and not the researchers ("The results indicate ... "). Avoid using the editorial "we"; if you use "we" in your writing, be sure that "we" refers to you and your fellow researchers.

It is a common misconception that foregrounding the research requires using the passive voice ("Experiments have been conducted ..."). This is inaccurate. Rather, you would use pronouns in place of "experiments" ("We conducted experiments ...").

APA Style encourages using the active voice ("We interpreted the results ..."). The active voice is particularly important in experimental reports, where the subject performing the action should be clearly identified (e.g. "We interviewed ..." vs. "The participants responded ...").

Consult the OWL handout for more on the distinction between passive and active voice.

Clarity and Conciseness

Clarity and conciseness in writing are important when conveying research in APA Style. You don't want to misrepresent the details of a study or confuse your readers with wordiness or unnecessarily complex sentences.

For clarity, be specific rather than vague in descriptions and explanations. Unpack details accurately to provide adequate information to your readers so they can follow the development of your study.

Example: "It was predicted that marital conflict would predict behavior problems in school-aged children."

To clarify this vague hypothesis, use parallel structure to outline specific ideas:

"The first hypothesis stated that marital conflict would predict behavior problems in school-aged children. The second hypothesis stated that the effect would be stronger for girls than for boys. The third hypothesis stated that older girls would be more affected by marital conflict than younger girls."

To be more concise, particularly in introductory material or abstracts, you should pare out unnecessary words and condense information when you can (see the OWL handout on Conciseness in academic writing for suggestions).

Example: The above list of hypotheses might be rephrased concisely as: "The authors wanted to investigate whether marital conflict would predict behavior problems in children and they wanted to know if the effect was greater for girls than for boys, particularly when they examined two different age groups of girls."

Balancing the need for clarity, which can require unpacking information, and the need for conciseness, which requires condensing information, is a challenge. Study published articles and reports in your field for examples of how to achieve this balance.

Word Choice

You should even be careful in selecting certain words or terms. Within the social sciences, commonly used words take on different meanings and can have a significant effect on how your readers interpret your reported findings or claims. To increase clarity, avoid bias, and control how your readers will receive your information, you should make certain substitutions:

  • Use terms like "participants" or "respondents" (rather than "subjects") to indicate how individuals were involved in your research
  • Use terms like "children" or "community members" to provide more detail about who was participating in the study
  • Use phrases like "The evidence suggests ..." or "Our study indicates ..." rather than referring to "proof" or "proves" because no single study can prove a theory or hypothesis

As with the other stylistic suggestions here, you should study the discourse of your field to see what terminology is most often used.

Avoiding Poetic Language

Writing papers in APA Style is unlike writing in more creative or literary styles that draw on poetic expressions and figurative language. Such linguistic devices can detract from conveying your information clearly and may come across to readers as forced when it is inappropriately used to explain an issue or your findings.

Therefore, you should:

  • minimize the amount of figurative language used in an APA paper, such as metaphors and analogies unless they are helpful in conveying a complex idea
  • avoid rhyming schemes, alliteration, or other poetic devices typically found in verse
  • use simple, descriptive adjectives and plain language that does not risk confusing your meaning
Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

APA Headings and Seriation

Headings

APA Style uses a unique headings system to separate and classify paper sections. Headings are used to help guide the reader through a document. The levels are organized by levels of subordination, and each section of the paper should start with the highest level of heading. There are 5 heading levels in APA. The 6th edition of the APA manual revises and simplifies previous heading guidelines. Regardless of the number of levels, always use the headings in order, beginning with level 1. The format of each level is illustrated below:

APA Headings
Level  Format
  1   Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings
  2Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
  3    Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period.
  4    Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.
  5    Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.

Thus, if the article has four sections, some of which have subsections and some of which don’t, use headings depending on the level of subordination. Section headings receive level one format. Subsections receive level two format. Subsections of subsections receive level three format. For example:

                    Method (Level 1)

Site of Study (Level 2)

Participant Population (Level 2)

          Teachers. (Level 3)

          Students. (Level 3)

                    Results (Level 1)

Spatial Ability (Level 2)

          Test one. (Level 3)

          Teachers with experience. (Level 4)

          Teachers in training. (Level 4)

          Test two. (Level 3)

Kinesthetic Ability (Level 2)

In APA Style, the Introduction section never gets a heading and headings are not indicated by letters or numbers. Levels of headings will depend upon the length and organization of your paper. Regardless, always begin with level one headings and proceed to level two, etc.

Seriation

APA also allows for seriation in the body text to help authors organize and present key ideas. For numbered seriation, do the following:

On the basis of four generations of usability testing on the Purdue OWL, the Purdue OWL Usability Team recommended the following:
  1. Move the navigation bar from the right to the left side of the OWL pages.
  2. Integrate branded graphics (the Writing Lab and OWL logos) into the text on the OWL homepage.
  3. Add a search box to every page of the OWL.
  4. Develop an OWL site map.
  5. Develop a three-tiered navigation system.

For lists that do not communicate hierarchical order or chronology, use bullets:

In general, participants found user-centered OWL mock up to be easier to use. What follows are samples of participants' responses:
  • "This version is easier to use."
  • "Version two seems better organized."
  • "It took me a few minutes to learn how to use this version, but after that, I felt more comfortable with it."

Authors may also use seriation for paragraph length text.

For seriation within sentences, authors may use letters:

On the basis of research conducted by the usability team, OWL staff have completed (a) the OWL site map; (b) integrating graphics with text on the OWL homepage; (c) search boxes on all OWL pages except the orange OWL resources (that is pending; we do have a search page); (d) moving the navigation bar to the left side of pages on all OWL resources except in the orange area (that is pending); (e) piloting the first phase of the three-tiered navigation system, as illustrated in the new Engagement section.

Authors may also separate points with bullet lists:

On the basis of the research conducted by the usability team, OWL staff have completed
  • the OWL site map;
  • integrating graphics with text on the OWL homepage;
  • search boxes on all OWL pages except the orange OWL resources (that is pending; we do have a search page);
  • moving the navigation bar to the left side of pages on all OWL resources except in the orange area (that is pending);
  • piloting the first phase of the three-tiered navigation system, as illustrated in the new Engagement section.
Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

APA PowerPoint Slide Presentation

Select the APA PowerPoint Presentation link in the Media box above to download slides that provide a detailed review of the APA citation style.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

APA Sample Paper

Click on the link above in the Media box to download the pdf handout, APA Sample Paper.

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

APA Tables and Figures 1

The purpose of tables and figures in documents is to enhance your readers' understanding of the information in the document. Most word processing software available today will allow you to create your own tables and figures, and even the most basic of word processors permit the embedding of images, thus enabling you to include tables and figures in almost any document.

General guidelines

Necessity. Visual material such as tables and figures can be used quickly and efficiently to present a large amount of information to an audience, but visuals must be used to assist communication, not to use up space, or disguise marginally significant results behind a screen of complicated statistics. Ask yourself this question first: Is the table or figure necessary? For example, it is better to present simple descriptive statistics in the text, not in a table.

Relation of Tables or Figures and Text. Because tables and figures supplement the text, refer in the text to all tables and figures used and explain what the reader should look for when using the table or figure. Focus only on the important point the reader should draw from them, and leave the details for the reader to examine on their own.

Documentation. If you are using figures, tables and/or data from other sources, be sure to gather all the information you will need to properly document your sources.

Integrity and Independence. Each table and figure must be intelligible without reference to the text, so be sure to include an explanation of every abbreviation (except the standard statistical symbols and abbreviations).

Organization, Consistency, and Coherence. Number all tables sequentially as you refer to them in the text (Table 1, Table 2, etc.), likewise for figures (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Abbreviations, terminology, and probability level values must be consistent across tables and figures in the same article. Likewise, formats, titles, and headings must be consistent. Do not repeat the same data in different tables.

Tables

Table Checklist

  • Is the table necessary?
  • Is the entire table single- or double-spaced (including the title, headings, and notes)?
  • Are all comparable tables presented consistently?
  • Is the title brief but explanatory?
  • Does every column have a column heading?
  • Are all abbreviations; special use of italics, parentheses, and dashes; and special symbols explained?
  • Are all probability level values correctly identified, and are asterisks attached to the appropriate table entries? Is a probability level assigned the same number of asterisks in all the tables in the same document?
  • Are the notes organized according to the convention of general, specific, probability?
  • Are all vertical rules eliminated?
  • If the table or its data are from another source, is the source properly cited?
  • Is the table referred to in the text?

Tables

Data in a table that would require only two or fewer columns and rows should be presented in the text. More complex data is better presented in tabular format. In order for quantitative data to be presented clearly and efficiently, it must be arranged logically, e.g. data to be compared must be presented next to one another (before/after, young/old, male/female, etc.), and statistical information (means, standard deviations, N values) must be presented in separate parts of the table. If possible, use canonical forms (such as ANOVA, regression, or correlation) to communicate your data effectively.

Table Structure

The following image illustrates the basic structure of tables.

Numbers.

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