This article is about the fictional humanoid creature. For specific characters and other uses, see Orc (disambiguation) and Ork (disambiguation).
An orc (also spelled as ork) is a fictional humanoid creature that is part of a fantasy race akin to goblins.
While the overall concept of orcs draws on a variety of pre-existing mythology, the main conception of the creatures stems from the fantasy writings of J. R. R. Tolkien, in particular The Lord of the Rings. In Tolkien's works, orcs are a brutish, aggressive, repulsive and generally malevolent species, existing in stark contrast with the benevolent Elvish race and generally serve an evil power. Tolkien's concept of orcs has subsequently been adapted and imported into other works of fantasy fiction as well as role-playing and strategy games (such as Dungeons & Dragons, Warhammer, and Warcraft), broadening the recognition of the creatures in popular culture.
Earlier references to creatures etymologically or conceptually similar to orcs can be found in Anglo-Saxon sources; including Beowulf and 16th-century Italian folk tales, in particular those of Giambattista Basile.
In popular culture (including fantasy fiction and fantasy games), orcs are variously portrayed but tend towards the descriptions originally set down by Tolkien. They are of approximately human shape (with bowed legs and long arms) and of varying size. Orcs are generally ugly and filthy, with prominent fangs and facial features tending toward the grotesque (generally a mixture of the ape-like and pig-like). Their skin is typically a shade of green, grey, black, brown, or sometimes red or sandy tan (Tolkien, in contrast, described some as "sallow", some as "black"—not necessarily a reference to skin colour—and one as "black-skinned").
Orcs are aggressive scavengers and opportunistic carnivores (with a taste for both in-species cannibalism and human flesh). While possessing a low cunning and crude culture of their own, they are generally portrayed as a subject race used as soldiers (or battle fodder) by beings of greater power and intelligence. There are exceptions, as orcs sometimes have cunning leaders of their own species, such as Azog from the Lord of the Rings universe. Violent by nature, they will fight ferociously if compelled or directed by a guiding will, but tend towards more chaotic behaviour (including cowardice) if left to their own devices. They often use boars, wolves, wargs, and other unusual beasts for battle transport.
The modern use of the English term orc to denote a race of evil, humanoid creatures has its inception with J. R. R. Tolkien. Tolkien's earliest Elvish dictionaries include the entry Ork (orq-) "monster", "ogre", "demon", together with orqindi and "ogresse". Tolkien sometimes used the plural form orqui in his early texts.
Tolkien sometimes, particularly in The Hobbit, used the word goblin instead of orc to describe the creatures. He notes that "orc" is "usually translated" as "goblin". In The Lord of the Rings, "goblin" is also used as an alternative to "orc", particularly in chapters describing events from a hobbit's perspective. Thus, the Uruk-hai of Isengard and the Mordor orc-captain Grishnakh are described as both "orcs" and "goblins" in The Lord of the Rings. Later in his life, Tolkien expressed an intention to change the spelling to ork, but the only place where that spelling occurred in his lifetime was in the published version of The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, in the poem Bombadil Goes Boating: "I'll call the orks on you: that'll send you running!" In The Silmarillion, published posthumously, "orcs" was retained.
Old English glossaries record the word orc corresponding with Latin Orcus (deity of the Underworld), and synonymous with þyrs/ðyrs "ogre" (cognate to Old Norse: þurs), as well as "hell devil". The Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal defines ork in the very closely related Old Dutch language as a verslindend monster ("devouring monster"), and points at a possible origin in the Old Dutch nork "petulant, crabbed, evil person".
The Latin: Orcus is glossed as "Old English: Orc, þyrs, oððe hel-deofol"[a] as given in the first Cleopatra Glossary (10th century), and on this entry Thomas Wright wrote, "Orcus was the name for Pluto, the god of the infernal regions, hence we can easily understand the explanation of hel-deofol. Orc, in Anglo-Saxon, like thyrs, means a spectre, or goblin."[b]
Probably the lone literary example is from Beowulf, and its poet found use of the orc- stem in orcneas, one of the tribes of creatures named alongside elves and ettins (giants) that have been condemned by God:
—Beowulf, Fitt I, vv. 111–14
—John R. Clark Hall, tr. (1901)
The compound orcneas is designated "evil spirits" above, but its accurate meaning is uncertain. Klaeber suggested it consisted of orc < L. orcus "the underworld" + neas "corpses" and that the translation "evils spirits" failed to do justice.[c]
The lexicography has been complicated by the Bosworth-Toller dictionary's conjecture that orcneas devolved from the form *orcen possibly meaning "(?) a sea-monster," possibly related to Icelandic: orkn (örkn).
Early modern use
The Oxford English Dictionary refers to orke, used in 1656 in a way that is reminiscent of giants and ogres. It is presumed that 'orke'/'ogre' came into English via continental fairy-tales, especially from the 17th-century French writer Charles Perrault, who borrowed most of his stories and developed his "ogre" from the 16th-century Italian writers Giambattista Basile, Giovanni Francesco Straparola (who has been credited with introducing the literary form of the fairy tale) and Basile, who wrote in the Naples dialect and claimed simply to be passing on oral folktales from his region that he had collected. In at least a dozen or more tales, Basile used huorco, huerco or uerco, the Neapolitan form of orco [Italian] "giant", "monster", to describe a large, hairy, tusked, mannish beast who could speak, that lived away in a dark forest or garden and that might capture and eat humans, or be indifferent or even benevolent—all depending on the tale.[d]
Note that the Italian term orco is derived directly from the Latin Orcus, and is correctly translated into English as "ogre". In early Roman mythology, Orcus was a god of the underworld, and in medieval times, by association with death and the underworld, the term "orcus" also began to see use for other monstrous creatures and incorporated into the medieval bestiary. In particular, the Italian orco implies an anthropomorphic creature with bestial aspects, often demonic, suggestive of the Anglo-Saxon ogre. Because of this, Italian translations of the terms "orc" or "ork", as found in Beowulf, as well as the writings of J. R. R. Tolkien and Markus Heitz, remain problematic, and are variously rendered—at the discretion of the translator—as orco (ogre), mezz'orco (half-ogre) or orchetto (small ogre).
The first English use of "orke", in 1656 (forty-one years before Perrault published his Mother Goose tales), comes from Don Zara, a fairy tale by Samuel Holland. It is a pastiche and a parody of fantastical Spanish romances such as Don Quixote and presumably is populated by beasts and monsters in common to them.[e] A monster called Orcus is mentioned in Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene (Book II, Canto XII, line xlvii).
The word ultimately comes from Latin Orcus, the demonic Roman god of death, who should not be confused with Pluto, the god of the underworld, and has transformed by several stages from the meanings "underworld", "hell", "devil", "evil creature" to "ogre". Tolkien and the lexicons he used attributed the origin of the doubtful Old English orc to "Orcus" and in one of his invented languages, the word for orc also had the form orco.
Words derived from or related to the Italian term orco exist in other countries: in addition to Italian dialectal uerco, huerco, and huorco and the Spanish word güercu, there is also Tyroleanork, "a house gnome" or "a mountain spirit" that acts as a protector of wildlife.
Tolkien explicitly denied any intended connection between his orcs and the killer whaleOrcinus orca and other cetaceans, that are also referred to as orcs. This is a borrowing from Latin orca, as used by Pliny the Elder, that refers to some kind of whale, quite likely Orcinus orca and which also appears in John Milton's poem Paradise Lost during a description of the Great Flood.
In literature and folklore
Main article: Orc (Middle-earth)
The humanoid, non-maritime race of orcs that exists in Middle-earth is the invention of J. R. R. Tolkien, albeit one which he stated in a letter was influenced by George MacDonald's The Princess and the Goblin. The word is usually capitalised in Tolkien's writing, but not necessarily in other works.
Within Tolkien's invented languages, the Elvish words for orc are derived from a root ruk referring to fear and horror, from which is derived an expanded form of the root uruk. A noun *uruku is produced from the extended root. This eventually turns into Quenyaurco, plural urqui. A related word *urkō produces Sindarinorch, plural yrch. The Quenya words are said to be less specific in meaning than the Sindarin, meaning 'bogey'. For the specific creatures called yrch by the Sindar, the Quenya word orco, with plurals orcor and orqui, was created.
These orcs had similar names in the other languages of Middle-earth: in Orkish uruk (restricted to the larger soldier-orcs); in the language of the Drúedain gorgûn; in Khuzdulrukhs, plural rakhâs; and in the language of Rohan and in the Common Speech, orc.
In Tolkien's writings, Orcs are of human shape, of varying size but always smaller than Men. They are depicted as ugly and filthy, with a taste for human flesh. They are fanged, bow-legged and long-armed and some have dark skin as if burned. In a private letter, Tolkien describes them as "squat, broad, flat-nosed, sallow-skinned, with wide mouths and slant eyes. They are portrayed as miserable, crafty, and vicious beings.
They fight ferociously as long as a guiding "will" (such as Morgoth or Sauron) compels or directs them. Tolkien sometimes describes Orcs as mainly being battle fodder.[f] Orcs are used as soldiers by both the greater and lesser villains of The Lord of the Rings, such as Sauron and Saruman.
Orcs eat all manner of flesh, including the flesh of Men. From descriptions and events relating to the Orcs, it seems likely that they indulge in cannibalism: in Chapter II of The Two Towers, Grishnákh, an Orc from Mordor, claims that the Isengard Orcs eat Orc-flesh, but whether that is true, or a canard spoken in malice, is uncertain. What does seem certain is that the Isengard Orcs resented that description. In that chapter Pippin is flung stale bread and an explicitly vague "strip of raw dried flesh... the flesh of he dared not guess what creature" by an Orc after a fight occurred in which the Uruk-hai killed several Orcs.
Orc origins are first described in The Tale of Tinúviel as "foul broodlings of Melkor[g] who fared abroad doing his evil work". In The Fall of Gondolin Tolkien wrote that "all that race were bred by Melko of the subterranean heats and slime. Their hearts were of granite and their bodies deformed; foul their faces which smiled not, but their laugh that of the clash of metal, and to nothing were they more fain than to aid in the basest of the purposes of Melko."
In The Silmarillion, Tolkien conceived the Orcs to be Elves who had been enslaved and tortured by Morgoth and broken and twisted into his evil soldiers. In other versions of their origin, including those from Tolkien's notes, the Orcs are depicted as the parodies or false-creations of Morgoth, animated solely by his evil will or perhaps, by his own diffused essence, and made intentionally to mock or spite Eru Ilúvatar's creations—the Eldar and Edain.
See The origin of Orcs for a full list of possible Orc origins proposed by Tolkien.
Language of the orcs
Main article: Black Speech
In The Lord of the Rings, the orcs spoke Black Speech, the language of Mordor. In The Fellowship of the Ring, Gandalf recites a poem about the Rings of Power which includes the lines "One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them" for Frodo at Bag End. Later, in the protection of the elven stronghold of Rivendell, Gandalf himself feels safe enough to recite these lines in the original language, Black Speech: "Ash nazg durbatulûk, ash nazg gimbatul, ash nazg thrakatulûk, agh burzum-ishi krimpatûl".
|Durbatulúk||To rule them all|
|Gimbatul||To find them|
|Thrakatulúk||To bring them all|
|Agh burzum-ishi krimpatul||And in the darkness bind them|
Some of these words contain similar pieces, such as atul, and úk, that are repeated, in Durbatulúk and Tharakutulúk. From this it can be shown that úk at some point in a word means "all" and atul means "them". The language contains many compound words.
Influence of Old English
Tolkien referred to the Old English origins of the word "orc", observing that "the word is, as far as I am concerned, actually derived from Old English orc 'demon', but only because of its phonetic suitability" and "I originally took the word from Old English orc (Beowulf 112 orc-neas and the gloss orc = þyrs ('ogre'), heldeofol ('hell-devil')). This is supposed not to be connected with modern Englishorc, ork, a name applied to various sea-beasts of the dolphin order". Tolkien also observed a connection with the Latin word orcus, noting that "the word used in translation of Qurko, Sorch is Orc. But that is because of the similarity of the ancient English word orc, 'evil spirit or bogey', to the Elvish words. There is possibly no connection between them. The English word is now generally supposed to be derived from Latinorcus ". He also stated that, "Orc I derived from Anglo-Saxon, a word meaning demon, usually supposed to be derived from the Latin Orcus – hell. But I doubt this, though the matter is too involved to set out here".
The word orcné, attested in the plural word orcnéas, is a hapax legomenon in the poem Beowulf. It is generally supposed to contain an element -né, cognate to Gothicnaus and Old Norse nár, both meaning 'corpse'. The usual Old English word for corpse is líc, but -né appears in nebbed 'corpse bed', and in dryhtné 'dead body of a warrior', where dryht is the name of a military unit that can be vaguely translated as 'band' or 'host'. In, If *orcné is to be glossed as orcus 'corpse', the meaning may be "corpse from Orcus (i.e. the underworld)", or "devil-corpse", understood as some sort of walking dead creature. This etymology is plausible, but it remains conjectural. Orc appears in two other locations in the poem Beowulf, but refers to cups of precious metal found in a treasure-hoard.
The Old English word þyrs, given as a gloss for Latin orcus, is cognate to Old Norseþurs 'giant', 'ogre', both originating from the unattested Common Germanic term thurisaz, which in Norse mythology refers to one of the monstrous descendants of the giant Ymir. But it is to be noted in connection with Tolkien's reference to a gloss orc=þyrs, that while there is an entry in an 11th-century English glossary which implies such an equivalence, [Latin] orcus [Old English] orc þyrs oððe heldeofol, this is in fact a conflation of two glosses in an earlier glossary of the 7th century, found in two different places: [Latin] orcus [Old English] orc and [Latin] orcus [Old English] þyrs oððe heldiubol". The first of these two glosses is in a section devoted to household implements and 'orcus' is, in that place, a corruption of Latin urceus 'jug', 'pitcher', or of orca 'pot', 'jar'. The word 'orc' in the first gloss has the meaning 'cup': it is descended from an early Germanic borrowing from urceus, related to Gothicaurkeis 'cup', both related to Modern English ark 'vessel', 'container'. In the second gloss, the Latin orcus is equated to Old English 'giant', 'hell-devil', but not to any already-existing Old English word 'orc', as Tolkien mistakenly thought.
Main article: Orc (Blake)
Orc is a proper name for one of the characters in the complex mythology of William Blake. Unlike the Tolkien's humanoid monster, his Orc is a positive figure, the embodiment of rebellion, and stands opposed to Urizen, the embodiment of tradition.
In Blake's illuminated book America a Prophecy, Orc is described by his mythic opponent, "Albion's Angel" as the "Lover of Wild Rebellion, and transgressor of God's Law". He symbolizes the spirit of rebellion and freedom, which provoked the French Revolution.
Main article: Orcs: First Blood
In contemporary literature, a series of books written by Stan Nicholls focuses on the conflicts between a group of orcs and humans, but through the unconventional view of the orcs. The trilogy, first printed in the United Kingdom by Victor Gollancz Ltd, has become an international bestseller. It is one of the few series where orcs are featured as the main characters.
In Terry Pratchett's Discworld series, Orcs are a race that is close to extinction. They were originally bred (or made) from men and not goblins, as was commonly believed, in order to be used as weapons in a Great War, 'encouraged' by whips and beatings.
To date only one living Orc, called Nutt, has been shown as a character, although it has been indicated that there are others that exist in the wilds of far Uberwald. Because of the brutal reputation and legends of Orcs, which reflect the traditional fantasy concept of soulless killers, Nutt was originally kept ignorant of his species and educated as would a human. He is depicted as being not necessarily a bad creature, and by extension members of his species are portrayed as the victims of victors' propaganda.
Given opportunity and guidance, Orcs can easily educate themselves and they display a great sense of honesty and morality. As they were originally created as warrior slaves and knew only how to be cruel and violent, they have a fearsome reputation.
Orcs play an important role in Markus Heitz' Dwarves quartet, The Dwarves, The War of the Dwarves,Revenge of the Dwarves and The Fate of the Dwarves, collectively known as the Dwarves saga.
See also: Ork (folklore) and Bauk (mythology)
The ork is a demon of Tyrolalpine folklore. As a dwarf, the ork was a well-behaved kobold/house spirit in wine cellars. He may be connected to the figure Orkise in the medieval poem Virginal, about Dietrich von Bern's battle with a vaguely similar being.
Other fantasy works
Since the publication of Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, orcs have become a fixture of fantasy fiction and role-playing games, where the orcs and goblins are usually considered to be distinct races of goblinoids. They were once often depicted with pig-like faces, although they were never described as such by Tolkien. In the 1980s, another orc archetype was introduced by the table-top miniature war gamesWarhammer Fantasy Battle, a heavily muscled, green-skinned barbarian with exaggerated tusks, brow, and lower jaw, whose personality is not so much evil as crudely thuggish, often to a comical degree. This style of orc has since become popular in a vast number of fantasy settings and games, including a signature of the Warcraft series of computer games and spin-offs.
Dungeons & Dragons
For orcs in the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game, see Orc (Dungeons & Dragons).
Orcs are units for the Orc Faction in Warlords Battlecry.
Orcs are featured in the films Dragonfyre and Dragon Lore: Curse of the Shadow.
Main articles: Orc (Warhammer) and Ork (Warhammer 40,000)
Games Workshop's Warhammer Fantasy and Warhammer 40,000 games feature Orcs ('Orks' in Warhammer 40,000). The latter setting is unique for featuring Orks in a science fiction environment that are capable of building crude, but functional vehicles, firearms and even spaceships. Anatomically, Warhammer Orcs are no taller than humans, unless when they are standing upright instead of slouching, but are substantially broader, with ape-like short legs and long arms. They have massive heads that come directly forward on their necks, giving them a stooping appearance. They have tough thick green skin that is highly resistant to pain. Warhammer Orcs lack intelligence, but can be cunning at times. They are warlike and their society is geared towards constant warfare. Their constant need to fight is an expression of Orc culture: Orcs do not form alliances except for temporary alliances with each other. In combat they can transform even the most common object into a lethal killing instrument. Orcs tend to ally with Goblins, who are called Gretchin in Warhammer 40,000, and Snotlings, but when allied, the Orcs act as bullies towards their smaller Goblinoid (Orkoid in Warhammer 40,000) cousins, using them as servants, Human (Goblin) shields, or an emergency food source. They worship a pair of gods known as Gork and Mork (other gods were included in earlier editions of the game, but are no longer included), one of which is described as brutally cunning and the other as cunningly brutal, though the orcs themselves do not seem to know which is which. In Warhammer 40,000, orks develop from a fungus-like beginning. They are spread by spores which are emitted constantly during an ork's lifetime and are all expelled when it dies.
Orcs are one of the most important races in the Warcraftcomputer game series. Originally presented as a race of typically savage monsters, more recent Warcraft games have revised their image into that of "savage but noble" warriors and shamans. Orcs originally hailed from the world of Draenor until the majority of the clans were tricked into serving a force of world-destroying demons, named the Burning Legion. Under the Legion's influence, the Orcish Horde slaughtered their onetime allies the Draenei and then were mystically transported to Azeroth to conquer it in the Legion's name. After two devastating wars, the orcs were finally defeated by the Human Alliance and rounded up into internment camps. They remained there until a young orc who had been raised by humans named Thrall (birth name Go'el), rallied them together and freed the bulk of the Horde from the influence of the demons. Thrall then founded a new Horde on the principles of strength and honor, hoping to reclaim the orcs' noble heritage.
Warcraft orcs are humanoid, but prodigiously muscled, with broad noses and distinctive tusked mouths. There are many tribes of Orc, each one being specialized: Frostwolves serves as cavalry with their dire wolves, while the Shadowmoon clan provides powerful shamans. The Orcs originally had brown skin, but demonic corruption turned it green, and further demonic influence can turn it red. Male Orcs are significantly larger than humans, around 6.5 feet (2.0 m) tall when standing straight, however most male Orcs have a hunched back. Females, which first appeared as playable characters in World of Warcraft, are slightly larger than a human female and while much more slender than their male counterparts, are nonetheless well-muscled. The tusks of female orcs are very small, and are arguably more exaggerated canines than tusks. Orc warriors wear little armor but have horned helmets and carry wielding axes. Warcraft is one of the few settings in which orcs are not inherently evil and, after significant plot developments in the latest Warcraft games, can even be heroic. One could consider the orcs to be unfairly treated by humans and not only misunderstood, but vilified. The humans' enmity and prejudice towards the Orcs can be traced back to the first and second invasions and could be partially justified, as it was orcs under the control of the Burning Legion that invaded. Despite the best efforts of reformist orcs (such as Thrall) to usher in an era of peace between humans and orcs, humankind's suspicions towards the orcs are further exacerbated by the bellicose and expansionist attitudes of parts of orc society, such as the Warsong Clan, who encroach upon the ancestral territories of the Night Elves, the allies of the humans. Thrall's orcs have occasionally formed successful alliances with humans.
Their political standpoint in the Warcraft universe is set as being the leading race of the Horde, an association of races created to promote mutual survival. The trolls, a similar race in the game, partially live in the same area as the orcs and are also scattered around Azeroth, where most live in the wilderness.
Earthdawn / Shadowrun
In the fantasy role-playing games Earthdawn and Shadowrun, orks are neither good nor evil. In Earthdawn they have their own place among the other name-giving races: humans, dwarfs, elves, obsidimen, T'skrang, trolls and windlings.
In Shadowrun, the orks are one subspecies of Homo sapiens among others living on post-2011 Earth. They emerged during the Unexplained Genetic Expression in 2021, as either young humans transformed into orks, or babies that were born as orks from human parents. They are categorized as Homo sapiens robustus and are considered to be metahumans, like trolls, elves, and dwarfs. They are able to interbreed with humans and other fellow metahumans. Despite this, their offspring (like the offspring of all inter-racial metahuman matings in Shadowrun) is of the race of only one of their parents. Being an ork is due to the expression of a gene, and thus half-breeds do not exist. They grow much faster than humans, reach maturity at 12, and give birth to a litter of about four children, though six to eight are not uncommon. Their average life-expectancy is about 35 to 40 years. They are physically larger and stronger than humans and their mental capacities are considered slightly inferior, though they are still not as dull as the average troll.
Magic: The Gathering
In the collectible card gameMagic: The Gathering, Orcs were originally portrayed as cowardly warriors who rely on the smaller, less intelligent Goblins when waging warfare. Very few creatures of the Orc type have been printed: most of them appeared in the Fallen Empires and Ice Age expansion sets. While Orcs were reprinted in more recent core sets, they never appeared in any subsequent expansion sets until Coldsnap, which introduced more Orc cards, along with a legendary Orc Shaman: Sek'kuar, Deathkeeper. In the recent set Khans of Tarkir, 7 new Orc cards have been introduced, including a legendary Orc Warrior: Zurgo Helmsmasher. With this new set, they seem to be changing the portrayal of Orcs from cowardly warriors to extremely formidable warriors that are very powerful, but highly reckless in battle.
Might and Magic
Within the universe of the Might and Magic franchise, orcs are portrayed as orange, green, or brown. In Heroes of Might and Magic, they are associated with the Barbarian faction.
In Ashan, the orcs are orange, extremely muscular humanoids, that were created by wizards (by fusing demon blood with human flesh) to be used as shock troops against a demon invasion. In Dark Messiah, a player spends a significant amount of time facing members of the Redskull Clan, a group of orcs living on an island that is important to the plot. They are led by a shaman (which is implied by a conversation between two orcs to be a popularly elected position) and make references to worshiping an unnamed fire goddess. In Tribes of the East, the mainland orcs are modelled after the Mongols, are led by a khan and worship a personified Father Sky.
Main article: Heroscape
In Hasbro's Heroscape line of game products, Orcs come from the pre-historic planet Grut and are thus known as Grut Orcs. They are blue-skinned, with prominent tusks or horns protruding from their chins or cheeks. They are slightly smaller than humans, except for the elite heavy gruts, which are the size of a normal human. Several Orc champions ride prehistoric animals (including a Tyrannosaurus Rex, a Velociraptor and sabre-tooth tigers, known as Swogs, indicating that the Orcs are accomplished animal tamers.
In Tamriel, orcs are humanoids distantly related to their contemporary elves and are noted for their unshakable courage in battle, and barbaric history. Although now integrated into Imperial culture, Orcs still retain their barbaric nature, with many citizens of Tamriel reluctant to accept them as true members of society. They have large under-teeth that protrude from the bottom jaw out from their mouths. One of the taller races of the Elder Scrolls series, they are, contrary to other renditions, not muscle-bound and war-like, but are still significantly bulkier than most other races. They are distinguishable by their green skin. The orcs, or Orsimer (meaning 'the Pariah Folk' in the elven language), are a strain of descendants of the original elven race. The Orsimer were followers of the god Trinimac, but transformed from gold-skinned elves to green-skinned orcs when Trinimac was transformed into the Daedric Prince Malacath by Boethiah, the Daedric Prince of deceit and treachery. The Orcs now worship Malacath as their chief god. Originally a society of marauders prone to pillaging human settlements in the provinces of High Rock and Hammerfell, the orcs suffered a series of crushing defeats from the humans throughout the centuries; eventually, relations between orcs and humans improved considerably and the orcs have become respected members of the Empire's society (ironically, they get along with humans better than Tamriel's elves do, as the elves are susceptible to attempts at conquering the humans). However, most citizens of Tamriel are reluctant to accept Orcs into society, due to their barbaric history. Another unique quality about the Orcs in the Elder Scrolls is that they are talented smiths and excellent rank-and-file soldiers, traits that are generally attributed to dwarves. It is said that Orc troops in heavy armor are among the fiercest warriors in Tamriel, and they are known for their Berserker Rage. Though a constant in the Elder Scrolls series is the cultural assimilation of various fantasy races into whichever area they happen to live, there also exist isolated strongholds of Orcs dedicated to preserving the 'old ways' of their cultural heritage.
In the Fate video game, orcs are portrayed as tall, clothed creatures of might, similar in concept to Yetis and ogres, except that they are usually armed. They are gray-skinned, robust and have horns protruding from their head, which look vaguely like that of a rhinoceros.
- ^Variant printed redactions: "orcus [orc].. þrys l heldeofol" in First Cleopatra glossary (D 459/31) in Pfeifer 1974, p. 37n
- ^The Corpus Glossary (Corpus Christi College MS. 144, late 8th to early 9th century) has the two glosses: "Orcus, orc" and "Orcus, ðyrs, hel-diobul. Wright 1974, vol. 2, p. 115 and Pfeifer 1974, p. 37n
- ^Note that Klaeber here takes orcus to be the world and not the god, as does Bosworth & Toller 1898, p. 764: "orc, es; m. The infernal regions (orcus)", though the latter seems to predicate on synthesizing the compound "Orcþyrs" by altering the reading of the Cleopatra glossaries as given by Wright's Voc. ii. that he sources.
- ^See especially Basile's tales Peruonto and Lo Cuento dell'Uerco.
- ^Straparola was translated into Spanish in 1583. Independent of this, there is in Spain to this day the folktale of the "huerco" or "güercu", which is a harbinger of impending death; a shade in the form of the person about to die.
- ^See "The Battles of the Fords of Isen".
- ^In Tolkien's mythology, the name of the Vala of evil was originally Melko; it was later altered to Melkor, a form that did not appear until the late 1930s.
- ^Parmavilatkayat volume XII: "Qenya Lexicon Qenya Dictionary": 'Ork' ('orq-' monster, ogre, demon. "orqindi" ogresse. [The original reading of the second entry was >'orqinan' ogresse.< Perhaps the intended meaning of the earlier form was 'region of ogres'; cf. 'kalimban', 'Hisinan'. 'The Poetic and Mythologic Words of Eldarissa' gives 'ork' 'ogre, giant' and 'orqin' 'ogress', which may be a feminine form. ...]"
- ^Tolkien, J. R. R. (1993), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Morgoth's Ring, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 414, 422, ISBN 0-395-68092-1
- ^"Ork". Instituut voor de Nederlandse Taal (in Dutch). 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
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Encantadia is a Philippine television dramafantasy series broadcast by GMA Network. The series is based from the 2005 television series of the same name, it served as a reboot and the fourth television series in the Encantadia franchise. Directed by Mark A. Reyes, it stars Kylie Padilla, Gabbi Garcia, Sanya Lopez and Glaiza de Castro. It premiered on July 18, 2016 replacing Poor Señorita on the network's Telebabad line up and worldwide on GMA Pinoy TV. The series concluded on May 19, 2017 with a total of 218 episodes. It was replaced by Mulawin vs. Ravena on its timeslot.
The series is streaming online on iflix and YouTube. In November 2017, the Director's Cut for the final episode was published on YouTube.
Main article: List of Encantadia (2016 TV series) episodes
The series had a total of 218 episodes.
Encantadia is a vast and enchanted realm. It comprises three major kingdoms: Lireo, Sapiro and Hathoria and one autonomous territory, Adamya.
At the beginning, Encantadia was at peace, there was only one gemstone, the Mother Gem, given by their deity, Emre. It ensured the balance of nature in Encantadia. But greedy encantados such as a fairy named Adhara, wanted to seize the power of the gem. To balance the powers to each kingdom and to make it harder to seize the powers all at once, the keeper of the Mother Gem, the fairy queen and founder of the queendom of Lireo, Cassiopeia, made the fateful decision and cleaved the gem. It resulted in a violent explosion and the once single gem became four parts. Each gemstone was given to the four major territories of Encantadia.
- Lireo, in the east, is the matriarchal queendom of diwatas and lambanas (fairies and pixies). They cared for Brilyante ng Hangin (Gemstone of Air). It is the home of the temple of their supreme deity, Emre.
- Sapiro, in the north, is the kingdom of healers and valiant warriors. They kept the Brilyante ng Lupa (Gemstone of Earth). Their land is blessed with fertile soil and minerals like no other kingdom in their world.
- Hathoria, in the west, is the kingdom of militaristic miners and blacksmiths that develop weapons and war machinery. They held the Brilyante ng Apoy (Gemstone of Fire).
- Adamya, in the south, is the territory of lamang-lupas (dwarves and hobbits). They kept the Brilyante ng Tubig (Gemstone of Water). This territory surrounded by the Adamyan Ocean, thrives in fishing and farming. It is also the only unfortified territory in Encantadia.
Cassiopeia thought that this would bring peace to their land but instead it brought chaos.
Hathoria, led by King Arvak, gave in to their greed and started a war to claim the other gems that they may gain power and rule over their whole world. He wanted the natural resources brought by the gemstones for the advancement of his own kingdom, firmly believing that their kingdom is more deserving to keep all the four gemstones. After seizing the Gemstone of Water from Adamya, the Hathors waged war with the Sapiro, in pursuit of the Gemstone of Earth. King Arvak seized the Gemstone of Earth from King Armeo of Sapiro before killing him. Later, King Arvak was killed by the Prince Raquim of Sapiro, Armeo's son. Before Arvak died, Raquim claimed the Gemstones of Water, Earth and Fire from Arvak's possession. The death of King Arvak weakened the Hathor force and made them retreat. But Hathoria, in retaliation, managed to massacre the Sapiryan royal family and destroy the kingdom. The kingdom of Sapiro fell and was left in ruins, its citizens scattered into different tribes in the northern mountains. Prince Raquim immediately brought the three gemstones to Queen Mine-a of Lireo, the current keeper of Gemstone of Air, for safekeeping. The four gems have not been separated since. Since then, the monarch of Lireo not only rules the kingdom but also is tasked to be the protector of the four gemstones.
Thousands of years have passed and the story unfolds in Lireo, when Queen Mine-a will choose her successor from her daughters, the four Sang'gres (Royal Blood Fairies), Pirena, Amihan, Alena and Danaya. She and Imaw, an elder from Adamya, can feel imminent danger lurking, and as she is being called to Devas (the world of the blessed dead), she has to leave the kingdom of Lireo in good and capable hands. She put her daughters to the test to see their capabilities and know who is best fit to be the next queen. Mine-a chooses and crowns Amihan, which to Pirena's dismay, led to her rebellion. Pirena's treachery set the chain of events that transpired for the separation of the gemstones. Pirena, after having stolen the Gemstone of Fire, sided with the Hathors and gave them back the power they've lost. Hathoria now plans to rise up from hiding and bring Lireo to its demise, with the end in view of ruling over the whole of Encantadia. Fortunately, Queen Mine-a before her death willed the remaining gemstones to her daughters. the youngest, Danaya became the keeper of the Gemstone of Earth. Her third daughter, Alena, became the keeper of the Gemstone of Water and her second daughter and new queen of Lireo, Amihan, became the keeper of the Gemstone of Air.
Pirena feigned reconciliation with her sisters after their mother's death. She hid her connivance with Hathoria from her sisters. Because of Pirena's lies and manipulations, she was successful in destroying the relationship of her sisters and usurping the throne from Amihan through the help of King Hagorn of Hathoria. But her treachery came back to her as she discovered too late that King Hagorn was just using her to gain access to the gemstones. With the Gemstone of Fire and Water back in Hathorian hands, the destined savior of Encantadia, Amihan's lost daughter, Lira, must unite the four sisters to gain back the lost gemstone and to bring balance again to their world. They will also find an ally in a warrior named Ybarro, which was later revealed to be the lost and only surviving member of the Sapiryan royal family, Prince Ibrahim, destined to unite and bring back the glory of the fallen kingdom of Sapiro. The sisters will soon learn that the greatest magic of all is forgiveness and love and that only through unity can they stop the evil that spread through their realm.
But with the Gemstone of Fire and Water under Hathorian hands, the sisters found it hard to reclaim Lireo from Hathorian rule. They will find their answer in the most unlikely of all beings. A lost human boy that was kidnapped into Encantadia named Paopao became Amihan's saviour. They shall soon discover that the boy wields an unknown Gemstone, the Gemstone of Quintessence/Soul, it was catapulted during the explosion the night the Mother Gem was cleaved. It was buried in the earth, hidden from the knowledge of all encantados, until Paopao accidentally discovered the gemstone. The new gemstone will give the sisters the leverage and hope to go against the now powerful Hathorian throne.
Fortunately, the sisters managed to bring down the kingdom of Hathoria and bring peace to their realm. They also succeeded in uniting the gem fragments to form the Mother Gem again. They thought they have achieved peace but a new threat came their way. An age old curse by the forgotten empire of Etheria was still in motion, the empire of Etheria (its entire four tribes) along with its four Herans (Etherian Royal Bloods) is resurrected into the present.
Etheria was an ancient empire that worshipped the fallen snake goddess, Ether, Emre's nemesis. It consisted of four Heras (tribes) with the members of each house possessing a unique ability given by Ether associated with their house.
- Hera Andal,the ruling tribe and Etheria's capital and residence of the Monarch, Empress Avria. Its denizens are known to have knowledge in black magic, dark arts and witchcraft and possess dominion over life and death through their extensive knowledge of the healing arts and sorcery.
- Hera Volo, the tribe of Etheria's military and infantry that have special abilities in the category of time, space and speed (such as accelerating or enhancing the speed of their movements, teleportation, time travel and manipulation of time). It is headed by Etheria's military general, Hera Juvila.
- Hera Sensa, the tribe of Etheria's scholars. They are psychics, mind readers, telepaths, and possess other powers or abilities involving the mind. It is headed by Avria's ever loyal servant, Hera Andora.
- Hera Ae-ga, the mysterious tribe composed of only women. They can manipulate and dictate emotions/feelings, they are also skilled in archery. It is headed by Hera Odessa.
The four territories of Encantadia were once vassals of Etheria. Because of their might and power, Etherians became cruel and wanted to conquer the whole of Encantadia in the name of their goddess, Ether. The four territories banded together and with the help of Emre (through his gift, the Mother Gem), Etheria was destroyed completely and was forgotten from the memories of all encantados. Through the machinations of the goddess, Ether, Etheria came back to the present time, but unlike before, the Etherians now know better. They now know that as long as the gemstones are in the hands of the fairies, they have no chance of winning but by using their personal weaknesses, it is easier to destroy the sisters and get their respective gemstones and by doing so their empire could be rebuilt again in the present.
Also their deity, Ether and her lover, Arde can finally usurp the divine throne of Emre in Devas. The feud of the three deities go back to the very beginning of Encantadia when Arde and Ether tried to banish Emre because of jealousy of Emre's many worshipers. Emre in retaliation, turned Arde into a dragon and made him the lord of Bala'ak (Encantadian underworld) while Ether because of her treachery was turned into a giant snake, left to wander Encantadia forever.
The Herans of Etheria tricked the sisters into going against each other. The events will challenge the trust and loyalty of the sisters to each other and to their duty as protectors of the gems and their realm. The fate of their world rests in their unity, trust and love. The sisters must also convince the other exiled deities, the moon goddess, Haliya and the destruction deity, Keros to side with Emre in a celestial war while trying to find the next generation of Encantados that will be worthy to inherit the powers of the gemstones and the duty to protect their land.
Cast and characters
Main article: List of Encantadia (2016 TV series) characters
- Main cast
- Supporting cast
- Extended cast
- Inah de Belen as Deshna ng Hathoria-Sapiro-Lireo/Luna
- Eula Valdes as Hara Avria ng Andal, Etheria
- Phytos Ramirez as Paolo Carlos "Paopao" Aguirre [e]
- Arra San Agustin as Ariana/Amihan
- Marx Topacio as Azulan
- Rey Talosig Jr. as Bathalang Emre
- Zoren Legaspi as exiled Bathalang Emre
- Jinri Park as Hera Juvila
- Special participation
- Guest cast
- Ana Feleo as Dama Ades
- Christian Bautista as Apitong
- Jaycee Parker as Hara Asnara (Fallen Queen of Sapiro)
- formerly named Minastacia in the old series; also called Mayne
- introverted goddess of beauty, love, and goodness; owns a mystic legendary pet; goddess who resides in the moon and the Adamyan seas who took spring bathes and loves honey
- Ian de Leon as Bathalang Keros
- guardian of the dead island faraway from Encantadia named Binyaan; has a blue dragon
- Lance Serrano as Memfes
- Julianne Lee as Mashna-de Alira Naswen ng Sapiro
- Avery Paraiso as Rehav Kahlil
- Ken Alfonso as Gamil
- Dayara Shane portrays two roles
- young Amihan
- Diwani Cassandra ng Sapiro (Ybrahim and LilaSari's heiress, Lira, Amihan, and Cassiope-a's daughter)
- Barbara Miguel as teenage Pirena
- Andrea Elaine as young Pirena
- JC Movido as young Danaya
- Althea Ablan as young Alena
- Chlaui Malayao as young Milagros/Lira
- Kariz Espiñosa as young "Lira"/Mira
Main article: Encantadia
On November 5, 2015, Atty. Felipe Gozon, the chairman and CEO of GMA Network Inc. finally announced during a GMA Network press conference, the remake of the successful 2005 fantasy series as part of the network's program line-up for 2016. On January 6, 2016, director Mark A. Reyes posted on his Instagram account that he will return as the director of the series.Suzette Doctolero, who created the first Encantadia remains as concept creator and head writer for this series. Encantadia was Doctolero's first head writing project with the network in 2005, and also served as her training for writing a fantasy story for the first time. She emphasized that the Encantadia requel focuses on correcting the mistakes of the original series.
This requel was first publicized during Marian Rivera's renewal of contract at GMA Network on February 16, 2016 wherein she was introduced by Lilybeth Rasonable, SVP of Entertainment for GMA Network to covet the role of Inang Reyna Mine-a. The following day, it was announced by director Mark Reyes in 24 Oras that the series is already on its pre-production stage and conceptualization. The first teaser of Encantadia premiered during Eat Bulaga on February 14, 2016 featuring a snippet of the power gems and the iconic "Tadhana" theme song. The first trailer of Encantadia was released June 11, 2016 and generally garnered positive reviews. The trailer featured the four Sang'gres' brandishing their powers. It also showed a glimpse of the re-imagined realm of Encantadia.
GMA Network Inc. released the full trailer of Encantadia (2016) on July 6, 2016 and announced that its television premiere is earlier than expected. The show started on July 18, 2016 on GMA Telebabad block. On September 15, 2016, the director posted on his Instagram account that the retelling concluded after 43 episodes, and the 45th will be the start of the 2005's sequel, stating that "The retelling ends. And the sequel begins,". He further added that it's not about 2005 version anymore, and new storyline will emerge on the series.
Filipina actress Marian Rivera plays the role of (Inang Reyna) Mine-a, the Queen of Lireo, (originally played by Dawn Zulueta). Rivera's husband, Dingdong Dantes, who played Ybarro in the original series plays the role of Raquim, prince of Sapiro (originally played by Richard Gomez). It serves as the comeback series of the couple after welcoming their first daughter and their last show together was My Beloved in 2012. Klea Pineda and Migo Adecer also join the cast as part of their prize after winning StarStruck VI.
On April 4, 2016, the four new Sang'gres of Encantadia were revealed live on 24 Oras. Amihan, the keeper of the wind gem, originally played by Iza Calzado, is now portrayed by Kylie Padilla. In the show's press conference, Padilla stated that being cast in Encantadia puts you as an "A-lister" in show business.Gabbi Garcia takes on the role of Alena, the keeper of the water gem, who was originally played by Karylle. Garcia stated that the series is her biggest break in the industry. She further stated, "...i’m not really gonna try to outdo but then, we’re not replacing them[...] just making a new, fresh version for the young audiences, for the generation now". Newcomer Sanya Lopez is Danaya, the youngest of the sisters and the keeper of the earth gem, played by Diana Zubiri in the original series. Lopez stated that having been compared to the original series was a big challenge for her, but in a positive way.Glaiza de Castro is the keeper of the gem of fire, Pirena, originally played by Sunshine Dizon. According to Doctolero, de Castro is the one and only choice for the role but she also auditioned for it. According to her, she watched and studied trainings from famous martial arts artists to get ready for the role. Other cast members including their roles also appeared after the announcement .
Sunshine Dizon, who played Pirena in the original series, revealed on May 6, 2016 that she takes part on the retelling-sequel of the 2016 series with a big but different character role, as Adhara. Meanwhile, Diana Zubiri who previously played Danaya is also cast as LilaSari.
A week before the show, Australian actor Conan Stevens, best known for his role on the American fantasy television series Game of Thrones, confirmed that he would join the cast in an unspecified role, which later on revealed as Vish'ka.
As the series progress, few special roles emerged; the first is Miguel Tanfelix who plays Pagaspas, a Mulawin with a mission to help the diwatas of Lireo. He played the same role 12 years ago on the series of the same name. The next would be Alden Richards, who will also play a Mulawin whose appearance has not yet been televised. In an interview with Manila Times, Richards said, "...11 years ago. I remember I watched the show with my family and I was so mesmerized with all the special effects. [...]When I learned that GMA was doing a ‘requel’ of Encantadia, I was really wishing to be a part of the show. That’s why when they told me that I have a role in the series, I was so happy...".
"The process is the same as when we make our signature gowns for clients here and abroad. Since the designs I've made still include my signature details, it was not that hard for me and my team to create the costumes. The only difference is that we had to consider how these gowns would appear against chroma optical filters used in television as Encantadia is a telefantasia which requires chroma."
Encantadia's costume designer is Francis Libiran, a world-renowned and critically acclaimed designer in the Philippines who did an extensive research to come up with the designs. According to Libiran, his team brainstormed together with Encantadia's production team and watched old clips of Encantadia in YouTube to conceptualized the character's fashion sense. The gowns of the sang'gres and Ynang Reyna is more edgy and fashionable compared to the ruggedness/cocky-themed costumes in 2005. Each gown depicts the powers and personalities of each sang'gre while showing one thing that they have in common- Royal. The colors of their gowns match the colors of the gems that the Sang’gres are guarding. Just like in the original series, they wore elegant gowns when they were not in a battle. He further stated, "A normal gown usually takes us two months to create but since we had to consider the time, we assigned a dedicated team of craftsmen to produce the outfits in just 15 days." According to the cast, they went on a strict diet and fitness trainings to secure their shape suited for their exquisite gowns. The cast first appeared in costumes during "ToyCon 2016 Poplife Fan Xperience" at the SMX Convention Center, Pasay City on June 10, 2016.
According to a review by CNN Philippines, Encantadia lived up to its long-gestating hype. The introduction and the narration was a big step-up for the show compared to the first one. It further stated that the new iteration looks better than the original and paces itself well in terms of narrative and plot. CNN was also impressed with the fight scenes giving impressions that are being done on a grander scale. They also stated that the scenes have depth and CG backgrounds are rendered beautifully and looks a lot slicker and a whole lot darker, looking like something from the PC version of Skyrim which they expressed as a huge improvement after over a decade. Anthea Reyes of WheninManila.com was also impressed of the series stating: "...all of our childish fantasies have returned to primetime television and it’s come back bigger, better, and infinitely more awesome..." She also stated that "the writing team is using this opportunity to the fullest to solidify the myth, the plot holes, and the motivations of everything. The writers of the show were able to place meaning in an aesthetic choice made from way before and further enrich the story." She also noted that the details of characters costume, to the clarified presence of the nomadic soldiers post Sappiro-Hathoria war, up until the background music used per every shot were all world class.FHM Philippines also made a review of the show and states that the creators of the show made an effort to make a living and breathing world and they succeeded. They also imposed that even though it was heavily inspired by Hollywood fantasy movies, it has the FIlipino flavor adding its own twist. They also pointed out that one of the shows strengths is that it has its own unique story. FHM further stated that: "...Like the original that came 11 years before it, Encantadia gives audiences something new to watch when it comes to primetime programming. Finally, something to cleanse our palate from all the drama and romantic programs that we've grown accustomed to."
A review by Philippine Entertainment Portal stated that the show’s director of photography and cameramen were impressive for utilizing different creative camera angles and techniques as it contributed to the intensity and excitement in the scene. They also gave positive feedback to its musical scoring stating that "...One of the factors that contributed to Encantadia 2005’s success is its musical scoring, in fact, it was even commended in the Asian Television Awards for Best Original Music Score. This requel did not disappoint when it comes to this aspect. The musical scorer seemed to compose different pieces suited to each kingdom since each had its own theme[...]the modernized, upbeat version of "Tadhana" also inensified the fight scenes."
Because of the good ratings and the success of the show, Encantadia is slated or expected to have another season. This was hinted on few scenes in its finale showing Cassiopea's twin, who lives in the ice kingdom in the far northern part of Encantadia, seems to pose a threat to diwatas. This was attested further by an Instagram post of Director Mark Reyes that the finale episode is his "official statement".
According to AGB Nielsen Philippines' Mega Manila household television ratings, the pilot episode of Encantadia earned a 26.1% rating. While the final episode scored a 13.8% rating in Nationwide Urban Television Audience Measurement people in television homes.
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- ^Alden joins ‘Encantadia’ admits missing Maine Lhar Santiago, Manila Times. Retrieved 09-07-2016
- ^ abcde
- ^Diana Zubiri previously played Danaya, now plays the cursed princess LilaSari.
- ^Alfred Vargas previously played Aquil and Amarro from Encantadia and Etheria, now reprises Amarro.
- ^Neil Ryan Sese previously played Viktu, now plays Asval, the evil Sapiryan prince.
- ^Cheska Iñigo previously played Galatea, now plays Mayca, one of the prisoners in Carcero.
- ^Phytos Ramirez previously played young Anthony from Encantadia, now plays the adult Paopao.
- ^Dingdong Dantes previously played Ybarro/Rama Ybrahim ng Sapiro, now plays Raquim, the father of Sang'gre Amihan and husband of Ynang Reyna Minea ng Lireo.
- ^Sunshine Dizon previously played Pirena, now plays evil Sang'gre Adhara.
- ^Ryan Eigenmann previously played Marvus from Etheria, now plays Berto.