Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.
At the dawn of history India started on her unending quest, and trackless centuries are filled with her striving and the grandeur of her success and her failures. Through good and ill fortune alike she has never lost sight of that quest or forgotten the ideals which gave her strength. We end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity, to the greater triumphs and achievements that await us. Are we brave enough and wise enough to grasp this opportunity and accept the challenge of the future?
Freedom and power bring responsibility. The responsibility rests upon this Assembly, a sovereign body representing the sovereign people of India. Before the birth of freedom we have endured all the pains of labour and our hearts are heavy with the memory of this sorrow. Some of those pains continue even now. Nevertheless, the past is over and it is the future that beckons to us now.
That future is not one of ease or resting but of incessant striving so that we may fulfil the pledges we have so often taken and the one we shall take today. The service of India means the service of the millions who suffer. It means the ending of poverty, ignorance, disease and inequality of opportunity. The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye. That may be beyond us, but as long as there are tears and suffering, so long our work will not be over.
And so we have to labour and to work, and work hard, to give reality to our dreams. Those dreams are for India, but they are also for the world, for all the nations and peoples are too closely knit together today for any one of them to imagine that it can live apart Peace has been said to be indivisible; so is freedom, so is prosperity now, and so also is disaster in this One World that can no longer be split into isolated fragments.
To the people of India, whose representatives we are, we make an appeal to join us with faith and confidence in this great adventure. This is no time for petty and destructive criticism, no time for ill-will or blaming others. We have to build the noble mansion of free India where all her children may dwell.
The appointed day has come—the day appointed by destiny—and India stands forth again, after long slumber and struggle, awake, vital, free and independent. The past clings on to us still in some measure and we have to do much before we redeem the pledges we have so often taken. Yet the turning-point is past, and history begins anew for us, the history which we shall live and act and others will write about.
It is a fateful moment for us in India, for all Asia and for the world. A new star rises, the star of freedom in the East, a new hope comes into being, a vision long cherished materializes. May the star never set and that hope never be betrayed!
We rejoice in that freedom, even though clouds surround us, and many of our people are sorrow-stricken and difficult problems encompass us. But freedom brings responsibilities and burdens and we have to face them in the spirit of a free and disciplined people.
On this day our first thoughts go to the architect of this freedom, the Father of our Nation, who, embodying the old spirit of India, held aloft the torch of freedom and lighted up the darkness that surrounded us. We have often been unworthy followers of his and have strayed from his message, but not only we but succeeding generations will remember this message and bear the imprint in their hearts of this great son of India, magnificent in his faith and strength and courage and humility. We shall never allow that torch of freedom to be blown out, however high the wind or stormy the tempest.
Our next thoughts must be of the unknown volunteers and soldiers of freedom who, without praise or reward, have served India even unto death.
We think also of our brothers and sisters who have been cut off from us by political boundaries and who unhappily cannot share at present in the freedom that has come. They are of us and will remain of us whatever may happen, and we shall be sharers in their good [or] ill fortune alike.
The future beckons to us. Whither do we go and what shall be our endeavour? To bring freedom and opportunity to the common man, to the peasants and workers of India; to fight and end poverty and ignorance and disease; to build up a prosperous, democratic and progressive nation, and to create social, economic and political institutions which will ensure justice and fullness of life to every man and woman.
We have hard work ahead. There is no resting for any one of us till we redeem our pledge in full, till we make all the people of India what destiny intended them to be. We are citizens of a great country on the verge of bold advance, and we have to live up to that high standard. All of us, to whatever religion we may belong, are equally the children of India with equal rights, privileges and obligations. We cannot encourage communalism or narrow-mindedness, for no nation can be great whose people are narrow in thought or in action.
To the nations and peoples of the world we send greetings and pledge ourselves to cooperate with them in furthering peace, freedom and democracy.
And to India, our much-loved motherland, the ancient, the eternal and the ever-new, we pay our reverent homage and we bind ourselves afresh to her service.
— Jawaharlal Nehru, On the Granting of Indian Independence, August 14, 1947 (Fordham University)
For other uses, see Dreaming.
Dreams are what a person sees and hears in their mind when they are sleeping. They are often similar to real life in some ways, but can also be very strange. Dreams can seem so real while they happen that the person might think that they are awake when actually they are asleep.
Sometimes a person realizes during a dream that they are dreaming, but keeps having the dream. This is called a lucid dream. This happens very little for most people, but for some people it happens often. During lucid dreaming the person will feel like they are controlling the dream, and will usually dream that they are doing fun things that they can't do in the real world.
Most people remember their dreams in some way or another, even if it is only a small part, but children are very likely to remember most of their dream clearly. It is often easier for people to remember dreams if they write down what happened in the dream just after they wake up. Because of this, many people have dream diaries where they describe each dream they have.
Nightmares are dreams which scare or shock people. Nightmares are usually based around that person's everyday fears, like spiders or dark places, but even a dream that's not about those things can feel unpleasant. Nightmares are caused by many different things: being uncomfortable or in pain while sleeping, sickness, stress, or even eating right before sleeping.
There are many different theories about why people dream and what their dreams mean. Every person has different dreams. Some psychologists believe that dreams reflect what is happening in the unconscious mind (the part of the mind that works by itself). Others think that people, places, and objects in dreams are symbols for other things in the dreamer's real life. Throughout history people have tried to make sense of dreams to learn things from them, and have often used them for divination or fortune-telling. Today there are still many books and websites devoted to making sense of dreams.
Ancient ideas on dreams[change | change source]
Generally speaking, ancient civilisations thought dreams were messages from the gods (see the works of Homer) or alternatively some kind of prophecy. However, they knew that often dreams misled the dreamer, and invented various explanations for this. Aristotle started off with ideas like this, but later became more skeptical, and denied the divine origin of dreams.
Freudian theory[change | change source]
In his Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund Freud connected them to his ideas on psychotherapy. Dreams, in Freud's view, are forms of "wish fulfillment". They are attempts by the unconscious to resolve a conflict of some sort. Because the information in the unconscious is in an unruly and often disturbing form, a "censor" in the preconscious will not allow it to pass unaltered into the conscious. Freud describes three main types of dreams: 1. Direct prophecies received in the dream; 2. The foretelling of a future event; 3. The symbolic dream, which requires interpretation.
Some authors, such as Hans Eysenck, have argued that the dreams Freud cites do not really support his theories. Eysenck argues that Freud's examples actually disprove his dream theory.
Modern work[change | change source]
Since Freud, the emphasis has been on the biology of dreaming.
The discovery of REM (rapid eye movement) and non-REM sleep has been important. Researchers have done many studies on this. Subjects have been woken up in both stages and asked what they were thinking about. It is clear that the reports from non-REM stages were different from REM stages. In particular, dreams occur mostly when the brain is in the REM state. There is also some relationship between dreaming and daydreams. Both seem to occur in a cycle of 90–110 minutes.
Apparently, "there is no evidence that a more useful understanding of personality can be gained from them than can be divined from the realities of waking behaviour".
If sleep is prevented, people suffer and get worse at every kind of waking activity. From this it is clear that one important function of sleep is to maintain normal brain activity during awake time. Somehow, during sleep the brain gets restored to its normal functioning. Sleep is, so far as is known, universal amongst vertebrates. That also argues for its great importance. However, it is not known whether dreaming supports this repair function of sleep, or whether it is something which just happens.
References[change | change source]
- ↑Harris, William V. 2009. Dreams and experience in classical antiquity. Cambridge, Mass. & London: Harvard University Press.
- ↑Aristotle, On Dreams, and On divination in sleep. In Ross W.D. 1931. The works of Aristotle translated into English. 3rd ed, Oxford University Press.
- ↑Freud, Sigmend. 1913. The interpretation of dreams. Authorised translation of third edition with introduction by A.A. Brill. London: George Allen. 
- ↑Eysenk, Hans 1985. Decline and fall of the Freudian empire. London:Viking. ISBN 0-14-022562-5
- ↑Foulks D. 1966. The psychology of sleep. New York: Scribner
- ↑Kramer M (ed) 1969. Dream psychology and the new biology of dreaming. Springflied, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas.
- ↑Hartman, Ernest. 1997. Biology of dreaming. Springflied, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas
- ↑Officially "sought details of their mental life just prior to waking".
- ↑Dement W. & Kleitman N. 1957. The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity. Journal of Experimental Psychology'. 53 (5): 339–346.
- ↑Hobson J.A; Pace-Scott E.F. & Robert Stickgold R. 2000. Dreaming and the brain: toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states. Behavioral and Brain Sciences23.
- ↑ 11.011.1Dreaming (by Ian Oswald) in Gregory, Richard L. 1987. The Oxford companion to the mind. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866124-X
- ↑Coutts R. 2008. Dreams as modifiers and tests of mental schemas: an emotional selection hypothesis. Psychological Reports. 102 (2): 561–574. 
- ↑Revonsuo A. 2000. The reinterpretation of dreams: an evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 23 (6): 877–901.